473,569 Members | 2,610 Online
Bytes | Software Development & Data Engineering Community
+ Post

Home Posts Topics Members FAQ

return Oracle stored function value back to Access VBA

Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.

Set Cmd = New Command
With Cmd
Set .ActiveConnecti on = get_XE_Conn 'makes a connection
Oracle XE
.CommandType = adCmdStoredProc
.CommandText = "pkg_EQRISK.get _num_dates_varp osfile"
'returns the number of
distinct dates in tmp_varposition table using Oracle proc
.Execute , , adExecuteNoReco rds

End With
Set Cmd = Nothing

Private m_conn As ADODB.Connectio n

Public Function get_XE_Conn() As ADODB.Connectio n

If m_conn Is Nothing Then
Set m_conn = New ADODB.Connectio n
End If
If m_conn.State <adStateOpen Then
m_conn.Open "PROVIDER=MSDAO RA.1;USER
ID=EQRISK;PASSW ORD=eq;DATA SOURCE=XE;"
'//m_conn.Open "Driver={Or acle in
XE};Server=XE;U id=EQRISK;Pwd=e q;"
'//m_conn.Open "ODBC;DSN=EQRIS K;DBQ=XE;UID=EQ RISK;PWD=eq"
End If
Set get_XE_Conn = m_conn

End Function

Jul 12 '07 #1
8 11246
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:

Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual

Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?

--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
Jul 12 '07 #2
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall
<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.

I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:

Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual

Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?

--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):

Option Explicit

Dim con, rst

Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"

Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1

Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value

rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing

Jul 12 '07 #3
On 12 Jul, 19:47, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall

<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:
Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual
Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?
--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me

FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):

Option Explicit

Dim con, rst

Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"

Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1

Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value

rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing- Hide quoted text -

- Show quoted text -
thanks. I guess this would work.

Do you know if its possible to return the return value of an Oracle
function in cases where a recordset? I know how to do this via a
stored proc but not a function.

Jul 16 '07 #4
On Jul 16, 5:21 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 12 Jul, 19:47, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall
<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:
Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual
Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?
--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):
Option Explicit
Dim con, rst
Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"
Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1
Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value
rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -

thanks. I guess this would work.

Do you know if its possible to return the return value of an Oracle
function in cases where a recordset? I know how to do this via a
stored proc but not a function.
Sorry, I don't understand your question.

Jul 16 '07 #5
On 16 Jul, 17:53, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 16, 5:21 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:


On 12 Jul, 19:47, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall
<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:
Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual
Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?
--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):
Option Explicit
Dim con, rst
Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"
Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1
Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value
rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -
thanks. I guess this would work.
Do you know if its possible to return the return value of an Oracle
function in cases where a recordset? I know how to do this via a
stored proc but not a function.

Sorry, I don't understand your question.- Hide quoted text -

- Show quoted text -
What I mean is if I run a stored procedure I know how to return a
value through one of the parameters

eg

Dim UpdateCmd As ADODB.Command

Set Cmd = New Command
With Cmd
Set .ActiveConnecti on = get_XE_Conn 'makes a connection
Oracle XE
.CommandType = adCmdStoredProc
.CommandText = "pkg_EQRISK.get _num_dates_Varp osfile"
'returns the no. of distinct dates
in tmp_varposition using Oracle proc
.Execute , , adExecuteNoReco rds
End With
debug.print Cmd(1)
however, if I want to write it as a function I am not sure how to do
this. (Cmd(1) returns the value in the 2nd parameter)

Jul 17 '07 #6
On Jul 17, 3:33 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 16 Jul, 17:53, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 16, 5:21 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 12 Jul, 19:47, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall
<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:
Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual
Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?
--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):
Option Explicit
Dim con, rst
Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"
Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1
Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value
rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -
thanks. I guess this would work.
Do you know if its possible to return the return value of an Oracle
function in cases where a recordset? I know how to do this via a
stored proc but not a function.
Sorry, I don't understand your question.- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -

What I mean is if I run a stored procedure I know how to return a
value through one of the parameters

eg

Dim UpdateCmd As ADODB.Command

Set Cmd = New Command
With Cmd
Set .ActiveConnecti on = get_XE_Conn 'makes a connection
Oracle XE
.CommandType = adCmdStoredProc
.CommandText = "pkg_EQRISK.get _num_dates_Varp osfile"
'returns the no. of distinct dates
in tmp_varposition using Oracle proc
.Execute , , adExecuteNoReco rds
End With
debug.print Cmd(1)

however, if I want to write it as a function I am not sure how to do
this. (Cmd(1) returns the value in the 2nd parameter)
Have your function return a value, then call it using an
ADODB.Recordset object as I illustrated previously.

In that example my test function was simply

create or replace function "MYTESTFUNC "
return VARCHAR2
is
begin
RETURN 'Gord was here.';
end;

Jul 17 '07 #7
On 17 Jul, 12:46, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 17, 3:33 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:


On 16 Jul, 17:53, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 16, 5:21 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 12 Jul, 19:47, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall
<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:
Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual
Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?
--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):
Option Explicit
Dim con, rst
Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"
Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1
Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value
rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -
thanks. I guess this would work.
Do you know if its possible to return the return value of an Oracle
function in cases where a recordset? I know how to do this via a
stored proc but not a function.
Sorry, I don't understand your question.- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -
What I mean is if I run a stored procedure I know how to return a
value through one of the parameters
eg
Dim UpdateCmd As ADODB.Command
Set Cmd = New Command
With Cmd
Set .ActiveConnecti on = get_XE_Conn 'makes a connection
Oracle XE
.CommandType = adCmdStoredProc
.CommandText = "pkg_EQRISK.get _num_dates_Varp osfile"
'returns the no. of distinct dates
in tmp_varposition using Oracle proc
.Execute , , adExecuteNoReco rds
End With
debug.print Cmd(1)
however, if I want to write it as a function I am not sure how to do
this. (Cmd(1) returns the value in the 2nd parameter)

Have your function return a value, then call it using an
ADODB.Recordset object as I illustrated previously.

In that example my test function was simply

create or replace function "MYTESTFUNC "
return VARCHAR2
is
begin
RETURN 'Gord was here.';
end;- Hide quoted text -

- Show quoted text -
ok, thanks. I see what you mean now. Is this the only way to return
the value of a function? Seems slightly convoluted.
Jul 17 '07 #8
On Jul 17, 6:59 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 17 Jul, 12:46, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 17, 3:33 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 16 Jul, 17:53, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 16, 5:21 am, colmkav <colmj...@yahoo .co.ukwrote:
On 12 Jul, 19:47, Gord <g...@kingston. netwrote:
On Jul 12, 10:10 am, Tim Marshall
<TIM...@PurpleP andaChasers.Moe rtheriumwrote:
colmkav wrote:
Can someone tell me how I can access the return value of a function
called from Oracle as opposed to a store proc from oracle? my oracle
function is get_num_dates_v arposfile. I am only used to using this
method with store procs that dont return a value back to Access. Hope
this makes sense.
I didn't look closely at your code as I stick exclusively to DAO when
writing mdbs against Oracle back ends (which is what all my work
comprises), but have you tried running:
Select get_num_dates_v arposfile from dual
Or whatever SQL statement is required to get the function to run in SQL
Plus via a pass through query with returns records set to true?
--
Tim http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~tmarshal/
^o<
/#) "Burp-beep, burp-beep, burp-beep?" - Quaker Jake
/^^ "Be Careful, Big Bird!" - Ditto "TIM-MAY!!" - Me
FWIW, this works for me (VBScript example):
Option Explicit
Dim con, rst
Set con = CreateObject("A DODB.Connection ")
con.CursorLocat ion = 3 ' adUseClient
con.Properties( "Prompt") = 2 ' adPromptComplet e
con.Open "DSN=Oracle ODBC local GDT;"
Set rst = CreateObject("A DODB.Recordset" )
rst.Open _
"SELECT MYTESTFUNC FROM DUAL", _
con, 3, 1
Wscript.Echo rst(0).Value
rst.Close
Set rst = Nothing
con.Close
Set con = Nothing- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -
thanks. I guess this would work.
Do you know if its possible to return the return value of an Oracle
function in cases where a recordset? I know how to do this via a
stored proc but not a function.
Sorry, I don't understand your question.- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -
What I mean is if I run a stored procedure I know how to return a
value through one of the parameters
eg
Dim UpdateCmd As ADODB.Command
Set Cmd = New Command
With Cmd
Set .ActiveConnecti on = get_XE_Conn 'makes a connection
Oracle XE
.CommandType = adCmdStoredProc
.CommandText = "pkg_EQRISK.get _num_dates_Varp osfile"
'returns the no. of distinct dates
in tmp_varposition using Oracle proc
.Execute , , adExecuteNoReco rds
End With
debug.print Cmd(1)
however, if I want to write it as a function I am not sure how to do
this. (Cmd(1) returns the value in the 2nd parameter)
Have your function return a value, then call it using an
ADODB.Recordset object as I illustrated previously.
In that example my test function was simply
create or replace function "MYTESTFUNC "
return VARCHAR2
is
begin
RETURN 'Gord was here.';
end;- Hide quoted text -
- Show quoted text -

ok, thanks. I see what you mean now. Is this the only way to return
the value of a function? Seems slightly convoluted.
The only way? Perhaps not, but IMO it is no more convoluted than using
an ADODB.Command object to return values from Procedures.

Jul 17 '07 #9

This thread has been closed and replies have been disabled. Please start a new discussion.

Similar topics

0
1404
by: Sachin Narasimhan via .NET 247 | last post by:
(Type your message here) Hi, I am at my wits end. It would be great if someone can help. Wehave a Stored Function(Oracle) that returns a boolean that wecannot change to return something else and we cannot write awrapper function ( Cos of copyright issues). The Issue is both Oracleclient.Oracletype( No Support forBoolean) and oledb.Oledbtype...
1
12205
by: robin via SQLMonster.com | last post by:
I've tried several different way to execute a oracle stored procedure from a DTS package but to no avail. I have a Linked Server setup which does bring back Oracle tables from the server when I click on the Tables icon. Here's my DTS statement: exec omsd..OMS_TECO.SP_Callback_Update_Pkg(116); omsd is the linked server
4
3652
by: Sameer Deshpande | last post by:
How do I create and return user defined data types in DB2. F.ex In Oracle I can create a user define datatype and return this data type from stored function. How can I do the same in DB2? SELECT id, SYSDATE FROM t WHERE id IN ( SELECT * FROM THE ( SELECT CAST( fn( :1 ) AS mydatatype
2
4360
by: Raj | last post by:
Hi, Does anybody know how to call an oracle stored procedure ( with parameters ofcourse) from MS Access 2002. I want to invoke an oracle stored procedure which takes 2 parameters. Thanks, Raj.
0
2138
by: george | last post by:
Hi world! Anyone experienced building gridview in Oracle environment using stored procedures, please help! Right now, I have issues using Oracle SP, I spent a whole day on this and still cannot get the results back, so shamelessly turn to you for help! OK, the web page part of SqlDataSource is defined as: <asp:SqlDataSource...
2
5696
by: =?Utf-8?B?Vmlua2k=?= | last post by:
Hello Everyone, I can successfully insert and update the oracle database by calling a oracles stored proc from my .net code. This oracle stored proc is returning some value. I cannot see that value in my .net code Below is my .net code OracleParameter mbrid = new OracleParameter("RET_MBRID", OracleType.Number); mbrid.Direction =...
1
1810
by: =?Utf-8?B?Vmlua2k=?= | last post by:
Hello Everyone, I can successfully insert and update the oracle database by calling a oracles stored proc from my .net code. This oracle stored proc is returning some value. I cannot see that value in my .net code Below is my .net code OracleParameter mbrid = new OracleParameter("RET_MBRID", OracleType.Number); mbrid.Direction =...
7
8189
by: E11esar | last post by:
Hi there. I have written a C# web service that calls an Oracle stored procedure. The SP is a simple select-max query and the table it is getting the value from has about 2.8 million rows in it. The field being MAX'd is an index field in the table. I have further ensured that the table has had an analysis and rebuild run on it to ensure good...
3
11779
by: rajkumarbathula | last post by:
Hi I was struck up with big problem of executing a oracle stored procedure in C#. Inputs 1:I am having 1 oracle stored procedure eg. myProc() and this procedure takes 1 INOUT parameter. of type stirng/varchar problem description: I am not able to execute this procedure through my C# code. for more information, below is the C# code that i...
0
7711
marktang
by: marktang | last post by:
ONU (Optical Network Unit) is one of the key components for providing high-speed Internet services. Its primary function is to act as an endpoint device located at the user's premises. However, people are often confused as to whether an ONU can Work As a Router. In this blog post, we’ll explore What is ONU, What Is Router, ONU & Router’s main...
0
7628
by: Hystou | last post by:
Most computers default to English, but sometimes we require a different language, especially when relocating. Forgot to request a specific language before your computer shipped? No problem! You can effortlessly switch the default language on Windows 10 without reinstalling. I'll walk you through it. First, let's disable language...
0
7938
Oralloy
by: Oralloy | last post by:
Hello folks, I am unable to find appropriate documentation on the type promotion of bit-fields when using the generalised comparison operator "<=>". The problem is that using the GNU compilers, it seems that the internal comparison operator "<=>" tries to promote arguments from unsigned to signed. This is as boiled down as I can make it. ...
0
6317
agi2029
by: agi2029 | last post by:
Let's talk about the concept of autonomous AI software engineers and no-code agents. These AIs are designed to manage the entire lifecycle of a software development project—planning, coding, testing, and deployment—without human intervention. Imagine an AI that can take a project description, break it down, write the code, debug it, and then...
1
5519
isladogs
by: isladogs | last post by:
The next Access Europe User Group meeting will be on Wednesday 1 May 2024 starting at 18:00 UK time (6PM UTC+1) and finishing by 19:30 (7.30PM). In this session, we are pleased to welcome a new presenter, Adolph Dupré who will be discussing some powerful techniques for using class modules. He will explain when you may want to use classes...
0
3667
by: adsilva | last post by:
A Windows Forms form does not have the event Unload, like VB6. What one acts like?
1
2128
by: 6302768590 | last post by:
Hai team i want code for transfer the data from one system to another through IP address by using C# our system has to for every 5mins then we have to update the data what the data is updated we have to send another system
1
1236
muto222
by: muto222 | last post by:
How can i add a mobile payment intergratation into php mysql website.
0
970
bsmnconsultancy
by: bsmnconsultancy | last post by:
In today's digital era, a well-designed website is crucial for businesses looking to succeed. Whether you're a small business owner or a large corporation in Toronto, having a strong online presence can significantly impact your brand's success. BSMN Consultancy, a leader in Website Development in Toronto offers valuable insights into creating...

By using Bytes.com and it's services, you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Use.

To disable or enable advertisements and analytics tracking please visit the manage ads & tracking page.