473,544 Members | 1,966 Online
Bytes | Software Development & Data Engineering Community
+ Post

Home Posts Topics Members FAQ

tree functions daily exercise: Range

Here's the belated Java solution.

import java.util.List;
import java.util.Array List;
import java.lang.Math;

class math {
public static List range(double n) {
return range(1,n,1);
}

public static List range(double n, double m) {
return range(n,m,1);
}

public static List range(double iMin, double iMax, double iStep) {
List ll = new ArrayList();
if (iMin <= iMax && iStep > 0) {
for (int i=0; i <= Math.floor((iMa x-iMin)/iStep); i++) {
ll.add(new Double(iMin+i*i Step));
}
return ll;
}
if (iMin >= iMax && iStep < 0) {
for (int i=0; i <= Math.floor((iMi n-iMax)/-iStep); i++) {
ll.add(new Double(iMin+i*i Step));
}
return ll;
}
// need to raise exception here
return ll;
}
}

class Range {
public static void main(String[] arg) {
System.out.prin tln(math.range( 5));
System.out.prin tln(math.range( 5,10));
System.out.prin tln(math.range( 5,7, 0.3));
System.out.prin tln(math.range( 5,-4, -2));
}
}

Perl & Python versions archived here:
http://xahlee.org/tree/tree.html

Xah
xa*@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/
Dear functional programers,

i run services called a-python-a-day and a-java-a-day, where each day i

give a tip or snippet of code in these languages, also as a way for me

to learn these languages.

I've been running this perl-python a-day mailing list for several
months, and have accumulated a sizable tutorial here:
http://xahlee.org/perl-python/python.html

In the coming days, i'll be starting to translate a complete set of
tree processing functions. These functions, always takes a tree as
input (arbitrary nested list) and always returns a list of a definite
structure. Together, they form a particular functional programing
paradigm. See this page for the complete documentation as it exists
now:
http://xahlee.org/PerlMathemat ica_dir/Matica.html

As usuall, each day we will be spending about 20 minutes enjoying these

little exercises. If past experience is a good indication, then i
presume that in a month or two we will have built a complete set of
functions that manipulates tress, in languages Python and Java and
Perl. (the Perl set is already written)

I'm always interested in LISP and Haskell languages, but never
seriously learned them. I'm hoping that you functional programers in
these languages or learners, join me in these 15 minutes daily
exercises as a fun routine to learn languages or functional
programing.

I'm in particular very interested in the daily discussions of these
topics by functional programers, as well seeing such set of complete
code in scsh and Haskell. (Common Lisp or other functional languages
are always welcome of course)

* Xah
* x...@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/

Jul 19 '05 #1
15 2642
Here's the next tree functions exercise in Python, Perl, Java. Other
language solutions welcome.
http://xahlee.org/tree/tree.html
---------------------

Table('exprStri ng', [iMax]) generates a list of iMax copies of value
of
eval('exprStrin g'), and returns the refence to the list. i.e.
[eval('exprStrin g'),eval('exprS tring'),...]

Table('exprStri ng', ['i', iMax]) generates a list of the values by
evaluating 'exprString' when 'i' in the string runs from 1 to iMax.

Table('exprStri ng', ['i', iMin, iMax]) starts with 'i' = iMin.

Table('exprStri ng', ['i', iMin, iMax, iStep]) uses steps iStep. If
iStep
is negative, then the role of iMin and iMax are reversed. Inputs
such as
[1, -3 , 1] returns bad result.

Table('exprStri ng', ['i', iMin, iMax, iStep], ['j', jMin, jMax,
iStep],
... ) gives a array by iterating 'i', 'j' in 'exprString'. For
example,
Table('f(i,j)', ['i',1,3], ['j',5,6]) returns [[f(1, 5), f(1, 6)],
[f(2,
5), f(2, 6)], [f(3, 5), f(3, 6)]].

In general, Table has the form Table('expressi onString', iterator1,
iterator2, ...) where 'expressionStri ng' is a string that will be
evaluated by eval. iterator have one of the following forms [iMax],
['dummyVarString ',iMax], ['dummyVarString ',iMin, iMax], or
['dummyVarString ',iMin, iMax, iStep].

If Table fails, 0 is returned. Table can fail, for example, when
the
argument are not appropriate references or the iterator range is
bad
such as ['i',5,1].

Example:

Table('q(s)' ,[3]); # returns ['s','s','s']

Table( 'i**2' , ['i', 4]); # returns [1, 4, 9, 16]

Table('[i,j,k]',['i',2],['j',100,200,100],['k',5,6])
# returns [[[[1,100,5],[1,100,6]],[[1,200,5],[1,200,6]]],
# [[[2,100,5],[2,100,6]],[[2,200,5],[2,200,6]]]]
Wolfram Research's Table function documentation is at:
http://documents.wolfram.com/mathema...unctions/Table
(this post is not affliated with Wolfram Research Incorporated and has
not been approved by Wolfram Research Incorporated.)

The first argument of Table function in Mathematica (mma) is a
expression. Most other languages cannot have such symbolic expressions.
In Perl, a string is choosen instead as the experssion, and it is being
evalutade later as code. This may not be a practical choice but anyway
it's just a exercise. Each other language should choose appropriate
design for this emulation...

Perl, Python, Java solutions will be posted by me in the coming days.

Xah
xa*@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/

Jul 19 '05 #2
lqf
thank
Jul 19 '05 #3
The Perl version of the Tree function is posted. It's a bit long.
Please see the code here:
http://xahlee.org/tree/Table.html

the choice of having a string as the first argument to Table is a bit
awkward in Perl. Possibly i'll have to rewrite it so that the first
argument is a function instead, where in each iteration the the
variables are fed to the function. This necessarily breaks the
Mathematica's syntactical form of Table, and is slightly less flexible
in power, but is more natural and practical in non-symbolic languages
like Perl, Python, Java.

I think the goal of the whole tree functions project
http://xahlee.org/tree/tree.html
would make the code actually practically useful for processing trees in
each language, as opposed to sticking to uniformness of these functions
across languages.

later on, as we write more tree functions, the whole set will be very
useful in processing tree structures, such as XML and many other things
spurn from it today.

Disclaimer: this project is not affiliated with Wolfram Research Inc.

Xah
xa*@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/

Jul 19 '05 #4
here's the Python spec for the Table function:

'''Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep]) returns a list of f applied to the
range range(iStart,iE nd,iStep).
Example: Table(f,[3,10,2]) returns [f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)]
Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep], [jStart,jEnd,jSt ep], ...) returns a nested
list of f(i,j,...) applied thru the iterators.
Example: Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,6,2]) returns [f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)]'''

it is slightly shortcut from the full form in that it doesn't allow
short cut conveniences. For example, one should be able to write
Table(f,[i,4], [j,1,9,2])
for
Table(f,[i,1,4,1], [j,1,9,2])

anyhow, for simplicity, let's start with this simpler spec.

I started to code this problem but this is quite a large problem, so i
figured it'd be fruitful to discuss it as we go.

The first problem i noted is that in Python, one cannot assign elements
in arrays where it doesn't exist yet. i.e.
a[7]=2
is illegal. This is in contrast to Perl, where one can do:
$a[3][7][2]=4
and automatically have a 3-dimentional nested array, where other
members simply have undefined values.

(This behavior of Perl is convenient when needed, but i recall in 2001
i spend the whole half a day trying to debug a program and it turned
out is caused by this behavior.)

With perl, a solution is to have Table simply generate the following
text and eval it.
--------------
my ($i,$j,$k,);
my @resultArray;

foreach $i (0 .. scalar(@{$ref_r angeSequence->[0]}) -1 ) {
foreach $j (0 .. scalar(@{$ref_r angeSequence->[1]}) -1 ) {
foreach $k (0 .. scalar(@{$ref_r angeSequence->[2]}) -1 ) {
$resultArray[$i][$j][$k] = &{Function(\@pa rameterList,$ex prString)}
($ref_rangeSequ ence->[0]->[$i],$ref_rangeSequ ence->[1]->[$j],$ref_rangeSequ ence->[2]->[$k],);

};};};

return \@resultArray;
------------
(in the above code, note the line $resultArray[$i][$j][$k]=...)

Another issue noted is that the so-called “list comprehension
syntax construction in Python actually also contained a semantic
irregularity. That is to say, when the loops are nested inside a
list-comprehension, it still produced a flat list, instead of a nested
list.

This is quite a pain. I didn't realize this until i completed my code
and realized the result is a flat list. Here's the "wrong" code as a
result:

def Table2(fun, *itrs):
dim=len (itrs)
dummies = ['i'+repr(i) for i in Range(0,dim-1)]
ll = [ (dummies[i],itrs[i][0],itrs[i][1],itrs[i][2]) for i in
Range(0,dim-1)]
funString='f('
for i in dummies: funString += i + ','
funString = funString[0:len(funString )-1]
funString += ')'
loopStr= '[ ' + funString
for i in range(0,dim):
loopStr += ' for ' + dummies[i] + ' in Range(' +
repr(itrs[i][0])+','+repr(itrs[i][1])+','+repr(itrs[i][2]) + ') '
loopStr += ' ]'
print loopStr
return eval(loopStr)

I was happy thinking that i'm done until am really dismayed by a
realization of this semantic irregulary. Both syntax irregularity and
semantic irregularity are ubiquitous in imperative languages.

So, now i have two choices:

(1) add another code to make a structure out of a flat list.
e.g. turn [1,2,3,4,5,6] to [[[1,2]],[[3,4]],[[5,6]]]

(2) rewrite the Table function to not use list comprehension. Instead,
use for loops.

I started to do (1) by writing a separate Partition function... bun in
the process i think perhaps (2) is better...

----------------
References:

• for a context of this message, see: http://xahlee.org/tree/tree.htm

• for a exposition of syntax aspects of irregularity of Python's
“list-comprehension , see
http://xahlee.org/perl-python/list_comprehension.html

Xah
xa*@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/

Jul 19 '05 #5
the example in the spec of previous post is wrong. Here's corrected
version:

here's the Python spec for the Table function:

'''Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep]) returns a list of f applied to the
range range(iStart,iE nd,iStep). Example: Table(f,[3,10,2]) returns
[f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)] Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep],
[jStart,jEnd,jSt ep], ...) returns a nested list of f(i,j,...) applied
thru the iterators. Example: Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,6,2]) returns
[[f(1,2),f(1,4),f (1,6)],[f(2,2),f(2,4),f (2,6)]]'''
it is slightly shortcut from the full form in that it doesn't allow
short cut conveniences. For example, one should be able to write
Table(f,[4], [1,9,2]) for Table(f,[1,4,1], [1,9,2])

Also, the first argument of expression has changed to a function
instead. Expression is much more convenient, but in languages that
isn't symbols oriented, a function is more appropriate.

anyhow, for simplicity, let's start with this simpler spec...

Xah
xa*@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/

Jul 19 '05 #6
Xah Lee wrote:
'''Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep]) returns a list of f applied to the
range range(iStart,iE nd,iStep). Example: Table(f,[3,10,2]) returns
[f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)] Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep],
[jStart,jEnd,jSt ep], ...) returns a nested list of f(i,j,...) applied
thru the iterators. Example: Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,6,2]) returns
[[f(1,2),f(1,4),f (1,6)],[f(2,2),f(2,4),f (2,6)]]'''


How does it know when to skip the end value (i.e. act as for the rest of
Python) and when to include it? Or did you mean:

Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,7,2]) returns
[[f(1,2),f(1,4),f (1,6)],[f(2,2),f(2,4),f (2,6)]]

Wouldn't it be more sensible just to take the iterators directly as
arguments, so for this example you would do:

Table(f, range(1,3), range(2,7,2))

That way you have more flexibility (e.g. to do out-of-order ranges such as
[1,3,2,0,4]), and the code for Table is much simpler since it just has to
manipulate the lists it was given.
Jul 19 '05 #7
Xah Lee wrote:
here's the Python spec for the Table function: .... References:

• for a context of this message, see: http://xahlee.org/tree/tree.htm


Here is a Scheme implementation of Table. As noted on your web page and the
Mathematica documentation, the first argument of Table "evaluates in a
non-standard way". Thus we use Scheme macros to control the evaluation of
this expression. The first three clauses in this syntax definition take care
to fill in the default values for i, imin, and di when they are not provided.
The fourth clause iterates over one variable constructing a list. Notice
this is done tail-recursively. The last clause handles the multiple variable
case by rewriting the term into a simpler form.

(define-syntax table
(syntax-rules ()
((table exp (imax))
(table exp (i 1 imax 1)))

((table exp (i imax))
(table exp (i 1 imax 1)))

((table exp (i imin imax))
(table exp (i imin imax 1)))

((table exp (i imin imax di))
(let loop ((n imin) (accum '()))
(if (< imax n)
(reverse accum)
(loop (+ n di) (cons ((lambda (i) exp) n) accum)))))

((table exp i j ...)
(table (table exp j ...) i))))
;; Examples

(table #t (0)) ;; => '()
(table #t (5)) ;; => '(#t #t #t #t #t)
(table i (i 5)) ;; => '(1 2 3 4 5)
(table i (i 2 5)) ;; => '(2 3 4 5)
(table i (i 2 5 2)) ;; => '(2 4)
(table i (i 2 6 2)) ;; => '(2 4 6)
(table (add1 i) (i 2 6 2)) ;; => '(3 5 7)
(table (- i j) (i 2) (j 2)) ;; => '((0 -1) (1 0))

(table (list i j k) (i 2) (j 100 200 100) (k 5 6))
;; =>
'((((1 100 5) (1 100 6)) ((1 200 5) (1 200 6)))
(((2 100 5) (2 100 6)) ((2 200 5) (2 200 6))))
Jul 19 '05 #8
Removing cross-posts to java and scheme lists.

On Tue, 21 Jun 2005 01:54:40 -0700, Xah Lee wrote:
here's the Python spec for the Table function:

'''Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep]) returns a list of f applied to the
range range(iStart,iE nd,iStep).
Example: Table(f,[3,10,2]) returns [f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)]
Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep], [jStart,jEnd,jSt ep], ...) returns a nested
list of f(i,j,...) applied thru the iterators.
Example: Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,6,2]) returns [f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)]'''
Xah's specifications doesn't make sense.

He says that Table(f, ilist, jlist, ...) should return a nested list, but
then contradicts himself in the example, which is not a nested list. He
also doesn't explain what i and j are supposed to be. Since his specs make
no sense to me, I'll simply ignore them and use my own.

This demonstrates some interesting features of Python, in particular, the
way it can pack and unpack multiple arguments and how to produce nested
lists.
def table(f, start, end=None, step=1):
"""Returns a list of f applied to the range(start, end, step).

Like range(), table() accepts defaults for start and step
(zero and one respectively).
"""
if end is None:
# syntactic sugar allowing us to use a single
# argument for end
start, end = 0, start
return [f(x) for x in range(start, end, step)]

def table_nested(f, *args):
"""Returns a nested list of lists of f applied in turn to
each set of arguments.

Each argument is expected to be a list of no more than
three int arguments, suitable to use as arguments to range().

Example: table_nested(f, [0, 3, 1], [3, 10, 2]) returns
[[f(0), f(1), f(2)], [f(3), f(5), f(7), f(9)]]
"""
L = []
for arg in args:
L.append(table( f, *arg))
return L

py> nested_table(st r, [4], [3, 7], [3, 10, 2])
[['0', '1', '2', '3'], ['3', '4', '5', '6'], ['3', '5', '7', '9']]

<snip perl code>
Another issue noted is that the so-called "list comprehension"
syntax construction in Python actually also contained a semantic
irregularity. That is to say, when the loops are nested inside a
list-comprehension, it still produced a flat list, instead of a nested
list.
Wrong. Nesting list comprehensions two deep (list of lists) is simple.

py> [[x, x**2, 2**x] for x in range(4)]
[[0, 0, 1], [1, 1, 2], [2, 4, 4], [3, 9, 8]]

py> [range(n) for n in range(5)]
[[], [0], [0, 1], [0, 1, 2], [0, 1, 2, 3]]

py> [range(n, n+4) for n in range(0, 16, 4)]
[[0, 1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6, 7], [8, 9, 10, 11], [12, 13, 14, 15]]

Nesting three or more deep is harder, but not impossible.

def inner(n):
return [[x, x**2] for x in range(1, n+1)]
def outer(n):
return [[x, inner(x)] for x in range(1, n+1)]

py> outer(0)
[]
py> outer(1)
[[1, [[1, 1]]]]
py> outer(2)
[[1, [[1, 1]]], [2, [[1, 1], [2, 4]]]]

At the risk of making hard-to-maintain code, we can turn outer into a
single list comprehension:

def outer2(n):
return [[x, [[y, y**2 ] for y in range(1, x+1)]] for x in range(1, n+1)]
py> outer2(2)
[[1, [[1, 1]]], [2, [[1, 1], [2, 4]]]]
This is quite a pain. I didn't realize this until i completed my code
and realized the result is a flat list. Here's the "wrong" code as a
result:
Well, at least he realises that his code is wrong.
def Table2(fun, *itrs):
dim=len (itrs)
dummies = ['i'+repr(i) for i in Range(0,dim-1)]
ll = [ (dummies[i],itrs[i][0],itrs[i][1],itrs[i][2]) for i in
Range(0,dim-1)]
funString='f('
for i in dummies: funString += i + ','
funString = funString[0:len(funString )-1]
funString += ')'
loopStr= '[ ' + funString
for i in range(0,dim):
loopStr += ' for ' + dummies[i] + ' in Range(' +
repr(itrs[i][0])+','+repr(itrs[i][1])+','+repr(itrs[i][2]) + ') '
loopStr += ' ]'
print loopStr
return eval(loopStr)
What an awful mess.
I was happy thinking that i'm done until am really dismayed by a
realization of this semantic irregulary. Both syntax irregularity and
semantic irregularity are ubiquitous in imperative languages.


A poor craftsman blames his tools.
--
Steven.

Jul 19 '05 #9
oops, another error. The example should be:

Table(f,[1,2,1],[2,6,2]) returns
[[f(1,2),f(1,4),f (1,6)],[f(2,2),f(2,4),f (2,6)]]
Wouldn't it be more sensible just to take the iterators directly as
arguments, so for this example you would do:

Table(f, range(1,3), range(2,7,2))
well yes... but this was emulation of Mathematica functions.
(Disclaimer: Mathematica is a trademark of Wolfram Research Inc, who is
not affliated with this project)

What you suggested is a function called Outer in Mathematica. The Table
function is in a sense multi-dimentional version of Range, so they
share syntax form.

Xah
xa*@xahlee.org
http://xahlee.org/

Duncan Booth wrote: Xah Lee wrote:
'''Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep]) returns a list of f applied to the
range range(iStart,iE nd,iStep). Example: Table(f,[3,10,2]) returns
[f(3),f(5),f(7), f(9)] Table(f,[iStart,iEnd,iSt ep],
[jStart,jEnd,jSt ep], ...) returns a nested list of f(i,j,...) applied
thru the iterators. Example: Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,6,2]) returns
[[f(1,2),f(1,4),f (1,6)],[f(2,2),f(2,4),f (2,6)]]'''


How does it know when to skip the end value (i.e. act as for the rest of
Python) and when to include it? Or did you mean:

Table(f,[1,3,1],[2,7,2]) returns
[[f(1,2),f(1,4),f (1,6)],[f(2,2),f(2,4),f (2,6)]]

Wouldn't it be more sensible just to take the iterators directly as
arguments, so for this example you would do:

Table(f, range(1,3), range(2,7,2))

That way you have more flexibility (e.g. to do out-of-order ranges such as
[1,3,2,0,4]), and the code for Table is much simpler since it just has to
manipulate the lists it was given.


Jul 19 '05 #10

This thread has been closed and replies have been disabled. Please start a new discussion.

Similar topics

99
5820
by: David MacQuigg | last post by:
I'm not getting any feedback on the most important benefit in my proposed "Ideas for Python 3" thread - the unification of methods and functions. Perhaps it was buried among too many other less important changes, so in this thread I would like to focus on that issue alone. I have edited the Proposed Syntax example below to take out the...
4
10731
by: August1 | last post by:
A handful of articles have been posted requesting information on how to use these functions in addition to the time() function as the seed to generate unique groups (sets) of numbers - each group consisting of 6 numbers - with a total of 50 groups of numbers. A well-known girl that some publishing companies use to provide introductory level...
19
6748
by: Christian Fowler | last post by:
I have a VERY LARGE pile of geographic data that I am importing into a database (db of choice is postgres, though may hop to oracle if necessary). The data is strictly hierarchical - each node has one, and only one parent. The depth should not exceed 6 or 7 levels. The initial import will have about 6 million leaves, and 3 million branches. I...
2
3461
by: Kiran | last post by:
Hello all, I am using a tree to display stuff, and it is constantly updated, but what I have noticed is in the lowest level, there is clearly noticable cutoff of the text I place there. The cutoff is existent even if I do not update the text inside the tree constantly. It seems that the text is halfway below where it should line up. I tried...
9
7814
by: raylopez99 | last post by:
What's the best way of implementing a multi-node tree in C++? What I'm trying to do is traverse a tree of possible chess moves given an intial position (at the root of the tree). Since every chess position has around 30 moves, it would mean every node of the tree would have 30 branches (on average), which in turn themselves would average...
2
4423
by: uche | last post by:
Guys, I am trying to build a Parse Tree with the following grammar. I have implemented my insertions using a standard binary tree inserting algorithm. With the psuedocode below, can you guys provide any helpful feedback to placing insert statements into building nodes of the tree. Any suggestions on how to build the tree will be appreciated....
2
2237
by: Bart Kastermans | last post by:
Summary: can't verify big O claim, how to properly time this? On Jun 15, 2:34 pm, "Terry Reedy" <tjre...@udel.eduwrote: Thanks for the idea. I would expect the separation to lead to somewhat more code, but all the "checking the root" code would be separated out in the tree class. The node class would be very smooth. I'll try this when...
4
3292
by: Mensanator | last post by:
With the new functions added to itertools in Python 2.6, I can finally get rid of this monstrosity: def ooloop6(a, n, perm=True, repl=True): if (not repl) and (n>len(a)): return r0 = range(n) r1 = r0 if perm and repl: # ok v = ','.join() f = ' '.join()
2
7362
by: cioccolatina | last post by:
Hey guys, is there anyone who could help me..? I have file ExpressionBinaryTree.java : /** class ExpressionBinaryTree * uses a binary tree to represent binary expressions * does not implement BinaryTree - all iterators return String */ package foundations;
0
7424
marktang
by: marktang | last post by:
ONU (Optical Network Unit) is one of the key components for providing high-speed Internet services. Its primary function is to act as an endpoint device located at the user's premises. However, people are often confused as to whether an ONU can Work As a Router. In this blog post, well explore What is ONU, What Is Router, ONU & Routers main...
0
7365
by: Hystou | last post by:
Most computers default to English, but sometimes we require a different language, especially when relocating. Forgot to request a specific language before your computer shipped? No problem! You can effortlessly switch the default language on Windows 10 without reinstalling. I'll walk you through it. First, let's disable language...
0
7607
Oralloy
by: Oralloy | last post by:
Hello folks, I am unable to find appropriate documentation on the type promotion of bit-fields when using the generalised comparison operator "<=>". The problem is that using the GNU compilers, it seems that the internal comparison operator "<=>" tries to promote arguments from unsigned to signed. This is as boiled down as I can make it. ...
0
7772
jinu1996
by: jinu1996 | last post by:
In today's digital age, having a compelling online presence is paramount for businesses aiming to thrive in a competitive landscape. At the heart of this digital strategy lies an intricately woven tapestry of website design and digital marketing. It's not merely about having a website; it's about crafting an immersive digital experience that...
1
7376
by: Hystou | last post by:
Overview: Windows 11 and 10 have less user interface control over operating system update behaviour than previous versions of Windows. In Windows 11 and 10, there is no way to turn off the Windows Update option using the Control Panel or Settings app; it automatically checks for updates and installs any it finds, whether you like it or not. For...
0
7709
tracyyun
by: tracyyun | last post by:
Dear forum friends, With the development of smart home technology, a variety of wireless communication protocols have appeared on the market, such as Zigbee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. Each protocol has its own unique characteristics and advantages, but as a user who is planning to build a smart home system, I am a bit confused by the...
0
3409
by: adsilva | last post by:
A Windows Forms form does not have the event Unload, like VB6. What one acts like?
1
1841
by: 6302768590 | last post by:
Hai team i want code for transfer the data from one system to another through IP address by using C# our system has to for every 5mins then we have to update the data what the data is updated we have to send another system
0
661
bsmnconsultancy
by: bsmnconsultancy | last post by:
In today's digital era, a well-designed website is crucial for businesses looking to succeed. Whether you're a small business owner or a large corporation in Toronto, having a strong online presence can significantly impact your brand's success. BSMN Consultancy, a leader in Website Development in Toronto offers valuable insights into creating...

By using Bytes.com and it's services, you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Use.

To disable or enable advertisements and analytics tracking please visit the manage ads & tracking page.