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Is this DELETE possible?

I am getting error messages when I try to delete from a table using
the values in the table itself. The intent is to delete all rows from
TableA where col_2 matches any of the col_1 values.

DELETE FROM TableA FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 =
y.col_2)

Error msg: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Can this be done with SQL or should I use T-SQL with cursors here?
Jul 20 '05 #1
14 3394
Try EXISTS or IN

DELETE TableA
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT * FROM TableA y
WHERE TableA.col_2 = y.col_1)

Or did you want:

DELETE TableA
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT * FROM TableA y
WHERE TableA.col_1 = y.col_2)

As always, I recommend you test with SELECT queries first. (No warrantees
implied, etc...)
"php newbie" <ne**********@yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:12**************************@posting.google.c om...
I am getting error messages when I try to delete from a table using
the values in the table itself. The intent is to delete all rows from
TableA where col_2 matches any of the col_1 values.

DELETE FROM TableA FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 =
y.col_2)

Error msg: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Can this be done with SQL or should I use T-SQL with cursors here?
Jul 20 '05 #2
Try:

DELETE FROM x
FROM TableA x
INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 = y.col_2)

--
Hope this helps.

Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

"php newbie" <ne**********@yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:12**************************@posting.google.c om...
I am getting error messages when I try to delete from a table using
the values in the table itself. The intent is to delete all rows from
TableA where col_2 matches any of the col_1 values.

DELETE FROM TableA FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 =
y.col_2)

Error msg: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Can this be done with SQL or should I use T-SQL with cursors here?

Jul 20 '05 #3
Aaron,

Thanks for the tip. It worked!

On a related note, I am facing the same error when I try to update
TableA with data from the same TableA.

The command I used is this:

UPDATE TableA SET col_2 = y.col_2
FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y
ON (x.col_1 = y.col_1)

Error message is: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Do you have a similar solution?

"Aaron W. West" <ta******@hotmail.NO.SPAM> wrote in message news:<P4********************@speakeasy.net>...
Try EXISTS or IN

DELETE TableA
WHERE EXISTS (SELECT * FROM TableA y
WHERE TableA.col_2 = y.col_1)

As always, I recommend you test with SELECT queries first. (No warrantees
implied, etc...)

Jul 20 '05 #4
On 14 Jul 2004 07:59:43 -0700, php newbie wrote:
Aaron,

Thanks for the tip. It worked!

On a related note, I am facing the same error when I try to update
TableA with data from the same TableA.

The command I used is this:

UPDATE TableA SET col_2 = y.col_2
FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y
ON (x.col_1 = y.col_1)

Error message is: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Do you have a similar solution?


If you're using "x" as a label for TableA, you need to use it throughout.

UPDATE x SET x.col_2 = y.col_2
FROM TableA x
INNER JOIN TableA y
ON (x.col_1 = y.col_1)
Jul 20 '05 #5
I also got it to work like this:

CREATE TABLE #T (A int,B int)
INSERT #T SELECT 1,2
INSERT #T SELECT 2,2
INSERT #T SELECT 3,3
INSERT #T SELECT 4,3
INSERT #T SELECT 5,3
INSERT #T SELECT 6,4
INSERT #T SELECT 7,4

SELECT * FROM #T WHERE A IN (SELECT DISTINCT B FROM #T)

DELETE FROM #T WHERE A IN (SELECT DISTINCT B FROM #T)
Jul 20 '05 #6
>> On a related note, I am facing the same error when I try to update
TableA with data from the same TableA. <<

Why in the world do you think that SQL has a FROM clause in UPDATE and
DELETE??? You are writing unpredictable, proprietary code that EVEN
IF IT WAS ALLOWED, would not produce results.

There is no FROM clause in a Standard SQL UPDATE statement; it would
make no sense. Other products (SQL Server, Sybase and Ingres) also
use the UPDATE .. FROM syntax, but with different semantics. So it
does not port, or even worse, when you do move it, it trashes your
database. Other programmers cannot read it and maintaining it is
harder. And when Microsoft decides to change it, you will have to do
a re-write. Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions? The last time the UPDATE FROM changed?

The correct syntax for a searched update statement is

<update statement> ::=
UPDATE <table name>
SET <set clause list>
[WHERE <search condition>]

<set clause list> ::=
<set clause> [{ , <set clause> }...]

<set clause> ::= <object column> = <update source>

<update source> ::= <value expression> | NULL | DEFAULT

<object column> ::= <column name>

The UPDATE clause simply gives the name of the base table or updatable
view to be changed.

Notice that no correlation name is allowed in the UPDATE clause; this
is to avoid some self-referencing problems that could occur. But it
also follows the data model in Standard SQL. When you give a table
expression a correlation name, it is to act as if a materialized table
with that correlation name has been created in the database. That
table then is dropped at the end of the statement. If you allowed
correlation names in the UPDATE clause, you would be updating the
materialized table, which would then disappear and leave the base
table untouched.

The SET clause is a list of columns to be changed or made; the WHERE
clause tells the statement which rows to use. For this discussion, we
will assume the user doing the update has applicable UPDATE privileges
for each <object column>.

* The WHERE Clause

As mentioned, the most important thing to remember about the WHERE
clause is that it is optional. If there is no WHERE clause, all rows
in the table are changed. This is a common error; if you make it,
immediately execute a ROLLBACK statement.

All rows that test TRUE for the <search condition> are marked as a
subset and not as individual rows. It is also possible that this
subset will be empty. This subset is used to construct a new set of
rows that will be inserted into the table when the subset is deleted
from the table. Note that the empty subset is a valid update that
will fire declarative referential actions and triggers.

* The SET Clause

Each assignment in the <set clause list> is executed in parallel and
each SET clause changes all the qualified rows at once. Or at least
that is the theoretical model. In practice, implementations will
first mark all of the qualified rows in the table in one pass, using
the WHERE clause. If there were no problems, then the SQL engine
makes a copy of each marked row in working storage. Each SET clause
is executed based on the old row image and the results are put in the
new row image. Finally, the old rows are deleted and the new rows are
inserted. If an error occurs during all of this, then system does a
ROLLBACK, the table is left unchanged and the errors are reported.
This parallelism is not like what you find in a traditional
third-generation programming language, so it may be hard to learn.
This feature lets you write a statement that will swap the values in
two columns, thus:

UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b, b = a;

This is not the same thing as

BEGIN ATOMIC
UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b;
UPDATE MyTable
SET b = a;
END;

In the first UPDATE, columns a and b will swap values in each row. In
the second pair of UPDATEs, column a will get all of the values of
column b in each row. In the second UPDATE of the pair, a, which now
has the same value as the original value of b, will be written back
into column b -- no change at all. There are some limits as to what
the value expression can be. The same column cannot appear more than
once in a <set clause list> -- which makes sense, given the parallel
nature of the statement. Since both go into effect at the same time,
you would not know which SET clause to use.

If a subquery expression is used in a <set clause>, and it returns a
single value, the result set is cast to a scalar; if it returns an
empty, the result set is cast to a NULL; if it returns multiple rows,
a cardinality violation is raised.

Same logic for the basic delete statement:

DELETE FROM Foobar
WHERE EXISTS
(SELECT *
FROM Foobar AS F1
WHERE Foobar.col_1 = F1.col_2)
Jul 20 '05 #7
Dan,

This works beautifully and also applies directly to the update query. Thanks a lot!

My gratitudes also go to Russ and Jim. I appreciate your help.
"Dan Guzman" <da*******@nospam-earthlink.net> wrote in message news:<kZ*****************@newsread2.news.pas.earth link.net>...
Try:

DELETE FROM x
FROM TableA x
INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 = y.col_2)

--
Hope this helps.

Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

Jul 20 '05 #8
vic
ne**********@yahoo.com (php newbie) wrote in message news:<12**************************@posting.google. com>...
I am getting error messages when I try to delete from a table using
the values in the table itself. The intent is to delete all rows from
TableA where col_2 matches any of the col_1 values.

DELETE FROM TableA FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 =
y.col_2)

Error msg: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Can this be done with SQL or should I use T-SQL with cursors here?


Hi,
try this:
DELETE x FROM TableA AS x INNER JOIN TableA AS y ON
(x.col_1 = y.col_2)

With best regards!
Jul 20 '05 #9
vic
ne**********@yahoo.com (php newbie) wrote in message news:<12**************************@posting.google. com>...
I am getting error messages when I try to delete from a table using
the values in the table itself. The intent is to delete all rows from
TableA where col_2 matches any of the col_1 values.

DELETE FROM TableA FROM TableA x INNER JOIN TableA y ON (x.col_1 =
y.col_2)

Error msg: The table 'TableA' is ambiguous.

Can this be done with SQL or should I use T-SQL with cursors here?


Hi,
try this:
DELETE x FROM TableA AS x INNER JOIN TableA AS y ON
(x.col_1 = y.col_2)

With best regards!
Jul 20 '05 #10
> Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions?


Joe,

Just out of curiosity, was LEFT OUTER JOIN (et. al.) always part of the ANSI
standard? If so, why do you think major database vendors such as Microsoft,
Sybase and Oracle choose proprietary syntax?

--
Hope this helps.

Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

"--CELKO--" <jc*******@earthlink.net> wrote in message
news:18**************************@posting.google.c om...
On a related note, I am facing the same error when I try to update

TableA with data from the same TableA. <<

Why in the world do you think that SQL has a FROM clause in UPDATE and
DELETE??? You are writing unpredictable, proprietary code that EVEN
IF IT WAS ALLOWED, would not produce results.

There is no FROM clause in a Standard SQL UPDATE statement; it would
make no sense. Other products (SQL Server, Sybase and Ingres) also
use the UPDATE .. FROM syntax, but with different semantics. So it
does not port, or even worse, when you do move it, it trashes your
database. Other programmers cannot read it and maintaining it is
harder. And when Microsoft decides to change it, you will have to do
a re-write. Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions? The last time the UPDATE FROM changed?

The correct syntax for a searched update statement is

<update statement> ::=
UPDATE <table name>
SET <set clause list>
[WHERE <search condition>]

<set clause list> ::=
<set clause> [{ , <set clause> }...]

<set clause> ::= <object column> = <update source>

<update source> ::= <value expression> | NULL | DEFAULT

<object column> ::= <column name>

The UPDATE clause simply gives the name of the base table or updatable
view to be changed.

Notice that no correlation name is allowed in the UPDATE clause; this
is to avoid some self-referencing problems that could occur. But it
also follows the data model in Standard SQL. When you give a table
expression a correlation name, it is to act as if a materialized table
with that correlation name has been created in the database. That
table then is dropped at the end of the statement. If you allowed
correlation names in the UPDATE clause, you would be updating the
materialized table, which would then disappear and leave the base
table untouched.

The SET clause is a list of columns to be changed or made; the WHERE
clause tells the statement which rows to use. For this discussion, we
will assume the user doing the update has applicable UPDATE privileges
for each <object column>.

* The WHERE Clause

As mentioned, the most important thing to remember about the WHERE
clause is that it is optional. If there is no WHERE clause, all rows
in the table are changed. This is a common error; if you make it,
immediately execute a ROLLBACK statement.

All rows that test TRUE for the <search condition> are marked as a
subset and not as individual rows. It is also possible that this
subset will be empty. This subset is used to construct a new set of
rows that will be inserted into the table when the subset is deleted
from the table. Note that the empty subset is a valid update that
will fire declarative referential actions and triggers.

* The SET Clause

Each assignment in the <set clause list> is executed in parallel and
each SET clause changes all the qualified rows at once. Or at least
that is the theoretical model. In practice, implementations will
first mark all of the qualified rows in the table in one pass, using
the WHERE clause. If there were no problems, then the SQL engine
makes a copy of each marked row in working storage. Each SET clause
is executed based on the old row image and the results are put in the
new row image. Finally, the old rows are deleted and the new rows are
inserted. If an error occurs during all of this, then system does a
ROLLBACK, the table is left unchanged and the errors are reported.
This parallelism is not like what you find in a traditional
third-generation programming language, so it may be hard to learn.
This feature lets you write a statement that will swap the values in
two columns, thus:

UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b, b = a;

This is not the same thing as

BEGIN ATOMIC
UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b;
UPDATE MyTable
SET b = a;
END;

In the first UPDATE, columns a and b will swap values in each row. In
the second pair of UPDATEs, column a will get all of the values of
column b in each row. In the second UPDATE of the pair, a, which now
has the same value as the original value of b, will be written back
into column b -- no change at all. There are some limits as to what
the value expression can be. The same column cannot appear more than
once in a <set clause list> -- which makes sense, given the parallel
nature of the statement. Since both go into effect at the same time,
you would not know which SET clause to use.

If a subquery expression is used in a <set clause>, and it returns a
single value, the result set is cast to a scalar; if it returns an
empty, the result set is cast to a NULL; if it returns multiple rows,
a cardinality violation is raised.

Same logic for the basic delete statement:

DELETE FROM Foobar
WHERE EXISTS
(SELECT *
FROM Foobar AS F1
WHERE Foobar.col_1 = F1.col_2)

Jul 20 '05 #11
Glad it helped.

--
Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

"php newbie" <ne**********@yahoo.com> wrote in message
news:12**************************@posting.google.c om...
Dan,

This works beautifully and also applies directly to the update query. Thanks a lot!
My gratitudes also go to Russ and Jim. I appreciate your help.

Jul 20 '05 #12
VC
Dan,

Both implementations pre-dated the '92 standard.

VC

"Dan Guzman" <da*******@nospam-earthlink.net> wrote in message
news:%v****************@newsread2.news.pas.earthli nk.net...
Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions?
Joe,

Just out of curiosity, was LEFT OUTER JOIN (et. al.) always part of the

ANSI standard? If so, why do you think major database vendors such as Microsoft, Sybase and Oracle choose proprietary syntax?

--
Hope this helps.

Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

"--CELKO--" <jc*******@earthlink.net> wrote in message
news:18**************************@posting.google.c om...
> On a related note, I am facing the same error when I try to update

TableA with data from the same TableA. <<

Why in the world do you think that SQL has a FROM clause in UPDATE and
DELETE??? You are writing unpredictable, proprietary code that EVEN
IF IT WAS ALLOWED, would not produce results.

There is no FROM clause in a Standard SQL UPDATE statement; it would
make no sense. Other products (SQL Server, Sybase and Ingres) also
use the UPDATE .. FROM syntax, but with different semantics. So it
does not port, or even worse, when you do move it, it trashes your
database. Other programmers cannot read it and maintaining it is
harder. And when Microsoft decides to change it, you will have to do
a re-write. Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions? The last time the UPDATE FROM changed?

The correct syntax for a searched update statement is

<update statement> ::=
UPDATE <table name>
SET <set clause list>
[WHERE <search condition>]

<set clause list> ::=
<set clause> [{ , <set clause> }...]

<set clause> ::= <object column> = <update source>

<update source> ::= <value expression> | NULL | DEFAULT

<object column> ::= <column name>

The UPDATE clause simply gives the name of the base table or updatable
view to be changed.

Notice that no correlation name is allowed in the UPDATE clause; this
is to avoid some self-referencing problems that could occur. But it
also follows the data model in Standard SQL. When you give a table
expression a correlation name, it is to act as if a materialized table
with that correlation name has been created in the database. That
table then is dropped at the end of the statement. If you allowed
correlation names in the UPDATE clause, you would be updating the
materialized table, which would then disappear and leave the base
table untouched.

The SET clause is a list of columns to be changed or made; the WHERE
clause tells the statement which rows to use. For this discussion, we
will assume the user doing the update has applicable UPDATE privileges
for each <object column>.

* The WHERE Clause

As mentioned, the most important thing to remember about the WHERE
clause is that it is optional. If there is no WHERE clause, all rows
in the table are changed. This is a common error; if you make it,
immediately execute a ROLLBACK statement.

All rows that test TRUE for the <search condition> are marked as a
subset and not as individual rows. It is also possible that this
subset will be empty. This subset is used to construct a new set of
rows that will be inserted into the table when the subset is deleted
from the table. Note that the empty subset is a valid update that
will fire declarative referential actions and triggers.

* The SET Clause

Each assignment in the <set clause list> is executed in parallel and
each SET clause changes all the qualified rows at once. Or at least
that is the theoretical model. In practice, implementations will
first mark all of the qualified rows in the table in one pass, using
the WHERE clause. If there were no problems, then the SQL engine
makes a copy of each marked row in working storage. Each SET clause
is executed based on the old row image and the results are put in the
new row image. Finally, the old rows are deleted and the new rows are
inserted. If an error occurs during all of this, then system does a
ROLLBACK, the table is left unchanged and the errors are reported.
This parallelism is not like what you find in a traditional
third-generation programming language, so it may be hard to learn.
This feature lets you write a statement that will swap the values in
two columns, thus:

UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b, b = a;

This is not the same thing as

BEGIN ATOMIC
UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b;
UPDATE MyTable
SET b = a;
END;

In the first UPDATE, columns a and b will swap values in each row. In
the second pair of UPDATEs, column a will get all of the values of
column b in each row. In the second UPDATE of the pair, a, which now
has the same value as the original value of b, will be written back
into column b -- no change at all. There are some limits as to what
the value expression can be. The same column cannot appear more than
once in a <set clause list> -- which makes sense, given the parallel
nature of the statement. Since both go into effect at the same time,
you would not know which SET clause to use.

If a subquery expression is used in a <set clause>, and it returns a
single value, the result set is cast to a scalar; if it returns an
empty, the result set is cast to a NULL; if it returns multiple rows,
a cardinality violation is raised.

Same logic for the basic delete statement:

DELETE FROM Foobar
WHERE EXISTS
(SELECT *
FROM Foobar AS F1
WHERE Foobar.col_1 = F1.col_2)


Jul 20 '05 #13
> Both implementations pre-dated the '92 standard.

So it appears many vendors implemented proprietary SQL extensions to address
deficiencies in the SQL-89 standard. Once the standard was enhanced to
address the need, many vendors added support for ANSI-style joins as well.

Portability is a consideration but, IMHO, is less important than
functionality in most environments.

--
Hope this helps.

Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

"VC" <bo*******@hotmail.com> wrote in message
news:LuPJc.87240$JR4.26140@attbi_s54...
Dan,

Both implementations pre-dated the '92 standard.

VC

"Dan Guzman" <da*******@nospam-earthlink.net> wrote in message
news:%v****************@newsread2.news.pas.earthli nk.net...
Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions?


Joe,

Just out of curiosity, was LEFT OUTER JOIN (et. al.) always part of the

ANSI
standard? If so, why do you think major database vendors such as

Microsoft,
Sybase and Oracle choose proprietary syntax?

--
Hope this helps.

Dan Guzman
SQL Server MVP

"--CELKO--" <jc*******@earthlink.net> wrote in message
news:18**************************@posting.google.c om...
>> On a related note, I am facing the same error when I try to update
TableA with data from the same TableA. <<

Why in the world do you think that SQL has a FROM clause in UPDATE and
DELETE??? You are writing unpredictable, proprietary code that EVEN
IF IT WAS ALLOWED, would not produce results.

There is no FROM clause in a Standard SQL UPDATE statement; it would
make no sense. Other products (SQL Server, Sybase and Ingres) also
use the UPDATE .. FROM syntax, but with different semantics. So it
does not port, or even worse, when you do move it, it trashes your
database. Other programmers cannot read it and maintaining it is
harder. And when Microsoft decides to change it, you will have to do
a re-write. Remember the deprecated "*=" versus "LEFT OUTER JOIN"
conversions? The last time the UPDATE FROM changed?

The correct syntax for a searched update statement is

<update statement> ::=
UPDATE <table name>
SET <set clause list>
[WHERE <search condition>]

<set clause list> ::=
<set clause> [{ , <set clause> }...]

<set clause> ::= <object column> = <update source>

<update source> ::= <value expression> | NULL | DEFAULT

<object column> ::= <column name>

The UPDATE clause simply gives the name of the base table or updatable
view to be changed.

Notice that no correlation name is allowed in the UPDATE clause; this
is to avoid some self-referencing problems that could occur. But it
also follows the data model in Standard SQL. When you give a table
expression a correlation name, it is to act as if a materialized table
with that correlation name has been created in the database. That
table then is dropped at the end of the statement. If you allowed
correlation names in the UPDATE clause, you would be updating the
materialized table, which would then disappear and leave the base
table untouched.

The SET clause is a list of columns to be changed or made; the WHERE
clause tells the statement which rows to use. For this discussion, we
will assume the user doing the update has applicable UPDATE privileges
for each <object column>.

* The WHERE Clause

As mentioned, the most important thing to remember about the WHERE
clause is that it is optional. If there is no WHERE clause, all rows
in the table are changed. This is a common error; if you make it,
immediately execute a ROLLBACK statement.

All rows that test TRUE for the <search condition> are marked as a
subset and not as individual rows. It is also possible that this
subset will be empty. This subset is used to construct a new set of
rows that will be inserted into the table when the subset is deleted
from the table. Note that the empty subset is a valid update that
will fire declarative referential actions and triggers.

* The SET Clause

Each assignment in the <set clause list> is executed in parallel and
each SET clause changes all the qualified rows at once. Or at least
that is the theoretical model. In practice, implementations will
first mark all of the qualified rows in the table in one pass, using
the WHERE clause. If there were no problems, then the SQL engine
makes a copy of each marked row in working storage. Each SET clause
is executed based on the old row image and the results are put in the
new row image. Finally, the old rows are deleted and the new rows are
inserted. If an error occurs during all of this, then system does a
ROLLBACK, the table is left unchanged and the errors are reported.
This parallelism is not like what you find in a traditional
third-generation programming language, so it may be hard to learn.
This feature lets you write a statement that will swap the values in
two columns, thus:

UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b, b = a;

This is not the same thing as

BEGIN ATOMIC
UPDATE MyTable
SET a = b;
UPDATE MyTable
SET b = a;
END;

In the first UPDATE, columns a and b will swap values in each row. In
the second pair of UPDATEs, column a will get all of the values of
column b in each row. In the second UPDATE of the pair, a, which now
has the same value as the original value of b, will be written back
into column b -- no change at all. There are some limits as to what
the value expression can be. The same column cannot appear more than
once in a <set clause list> -- which makes sense, given the parallel
nature of the statement. Since both go into effect at the same time,
you would not know which SET clause to use.

If a subquery expression is used in a <set clause>, and it returns a
single value, the result set is cast to a scalar; if it returns an
empty, the result set is cast to a NULL; if it returns multiple rows,
a cardinality violation is raised.

Same logic for the basic delete statement:

DELETE FROM Foobar
WHERE EXISTS
(SELECT *
FROM Foobar AS F1
WHERE Foobar.col_1 = F1.col_2)



Jul 20 '05 #14
--CELKO-- (jc*******@earthlink.net) writes:
There is no FROM clause in a Standard SQL UPDATE statement; it would
make no sense.
Of course it would.
Other programmers cannot read it and maintaining it is harder.


Au contraire, I find nested subselects more difficult to understand
and maintain.

So you have this UPDATE statement:

UPDATE tblA
SET col1 = z.col1
col2 = y.col2
FROM tblA a
JOIN ...
WHERE ...

And we are interested in which rows this statement actually hits. A little
cut and paste, select "UPDATE tblA SET", type SELECT, press Execute et
voilà!
--
Erland Sommarskog, SQL Server MVP, es****@sommarskog.se

Books Online for SQL Server SP3 at
http://www.microsoft.com/sql/techinf...2000/books.asp
Jul 20 '05 #15

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