The purpose of this project is to rigorously test the efficacy of the Precision Mathematics First-Grade (PM-1) intervention on the mathematics outcomes of English learners (ELs) who face mathematics difficulties (MD). The PM-1 intervention is designed to support students with or at risk for MD in developing a robust understanding of the underlying concepts, problem-solving skills, and vocabulary of early measurement and statistical investigation. This study will examine student response to the PM-1 intervention based on variables such as students' initial mathematics skill levels and proficiency in English, and explore how the rate and quality of mathematics discourse opportunities for ELs may predict gains in mathematics outcomes.

- Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Firestone, A. R., Turtura, J. E., Jungjohann, K. J., Brafford, T. L., Sutherland, M., Nelson, N. J., & Fien, H. (2019). Applying the curriculum research framework in the design and development of a technology-based tier 2 mathematics intervention.
*Journal of Special Education Technology, 34*(3), 176–189. doi: 10.1177/0162643418812051* - Doabler, C. T., Clarke, B., Kosty, D., Turtura, J. E., Firestone, A. R., Smolkowski, K., Jungjohann, K., Brafford, T. L., Nelson, N. J., Sutherland, M., Fien, H., & Maddox, S. A. (2019). Efficacy of a first-grade mathematics intervention on measurement and data analysis.
*Exceptional Children, 86*, 77–94. doi: 10.1177/0014402919857993* - Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Smolkowski, K., Turtura, J., Kosty, D., Kurtz Nelson, E., Fien, H., & Baker, S. K. (2019). Exploring the relationship between initial mathematics skill and the impact of a kindergarten mathematics intervention on student mathematics outcomes.
*Exceptional Children, 85*(2), 129–146. doi: 10.1177/0014402918799503 - Clarke, B., Strand Cary, M. G., Shanley, L., & Sutherland, M. (2018). Exploring the promise of a number line assessment to help identify students at-risk in mathematics.
*Assessment for Effective Intervention*, Advanced online publication. doi: 10.1177/1534508418791738 - Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Kosty, D., Kurtz Nelson, E., Smolkowski, K., Fien, H., & Turtura, J. (2017). Testing the efficacy of a kindergarten mathematics intervention by small group size.
*AERA Open, 3*(2), 1–16. doi: 10.1177/2332858417706899