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yield keyword usage

P: n/a
hi
coulde any one show me the usage of "yield" keyword specially in this
example:
"""Fibonacci sequences using generators

This program is part of "Dive Into Python", a free Python book for
experienced programmers. Visit http://diveintopython.org/ for the
latest version.
"""

__author__ = "Mark Pilgrim (ma**@diveintopython.org)"
__version__ = "$Revision: 1.2 $"
__date__ = "$Date: 2004/05/05 21:57:19 $"
__copyright__ = "Copyright (c) 2004 Mark Pilgrim"
__license__ = "Python"

def fibonacci(max):
a, b = 0, 1
while a < max:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b

for n in fibonacci(1000):
print n,

Jul 30 '07 #1
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P: n/a
On Jul 30, 2007, at 4:13 PM, Ehsan wrote:
hi
coulde any one show me the usage of "yield" keyword specially in this
example:
"""Fibonacci sequences using generators

This program is part of "Dive Into Python", a free Python book for
experienced programmers. Visit http://diveintopython.org/ for the
latest version.
"""

__author__ = "Mark Pilgrim (ma**@diveintopython.org)"
__version__ = "$Revision: 1.2 $"
__date__ = "$Date: 2004/05/05 21:57:19 $"
__copyright__ = "Copyright (c) 2004 Mark Pilgrim"
__license__ = "Python"

def fibonacci(max):
a, b = 0, 1
while a < max:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b

for n in fibonacci(1000):
print n,
As in how it works? Sure, when you use the yield statement in a
function or method you turn it into a generator method that can then
be used for iteration. What happens is that when fibonacci(1000) is
called in the for loop statement it executes up to the yield
statement where it "yields" the then current value of a to the
calling context at which point n in the for loop is bound to that
value and the for loop executes one iteration. Upon the beginning of
the for loop's next iteration the fibonacci function continues
execution from the yield statment until it either reaches another
yield statement or ends. In this case, since the yield occured in a
loop, it will be the same yield statement at which point it will
"yield" the new value of a. It should be obvious now that this whole
process will repeat until the condition a < max is not longer true in
the fibonacci function at which point the function will return
without yielding a value and the main loop (for n in ...) will
terminate.

Erik Jones

Software Developer | Emmaź
er**@myemma.com
800.595.4401 or 615.292.5888
615.292.0777 (fax)

Emma helps organizations everywhere communicate & market in style.
Visit us online at http://www.myemma.com
Jul 30 '07 #2

P: n/a
On Jul 30, 4:40 pm, Erik Jones <e...@myemma.comwrote:
On Jul 30, 2007, at 4:13 PM, Ehsan wrote:


hi
coulde any one show me the usage of "yield" keyword specially in this
example:
"""Fibonacci sequences using generators
This program is part of "Dive Into Python", a free Python book for
experienced programmers. Visithttp://diveintopython.org/for the
latest version.
"""
__author__ = "Mark Pilgrim (m...@diveintopython.org)"
__version__ = "$Revision: 1.2 $"
__date__ = "$Date: 2004/05/05 21:57:19 $"
__copyright__ = "Copyright (c) 2004 Mark Pilgrim"
__license__ = "Python"
def fibonacci(max):
a, b = 0, 1
while a < max:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b
for n in fibonacci(1000):
print n,

As in how it works? Sure, when you use the yield statement in a
function or method you turn it into a generator method that can then
be used for iteration. What happens is that when fibonacci(1000) is
called in the for loop statement it executes up to the yield
statement where it "yields" the then current value of a to the
calling context at which point n in the for loop is bound to that
value and the for loop executes one iteration. Upon the beginning of
the for loop's next iteration the fibonacci function continues
execution from the yield statment until it either reaches another
yield statement or ends. In this case, since the yield occured in a
loop, it will be the same yield statement at which point it will
"yield" the new value of a. It should be obvious now that this whole
process will repeat until the condition a < max is not longer true in
the fibonacci function at which point the function will return
without yielding a value and the main loop (for n in ...) will
terminate.
Also note that the function could terminate without ever executing
a yield statement (if max<0). In which case nothing would get printed
just like in

for n in []: print n,

You could also force the generator to abort rather than relying
on the while loop not executing by using a return instead of a yield
statement. This can be useful if the while executes even when given
bad arguments.

def fibonacci(max):
if max < 0: # test for invalid argument
print 'max must be >0' # diagnostic message
return # kill generator
a, b = 0, 1
while a < max:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b

for n in fibonacci(1000):
print n,

print
print

for n in fibonacci(-1000):
print n,
## 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34 55 89 144 233 377 610 987
##
## max must be >0

>
Erik Jones

Software Developer | Emmaź
e...@myemma.com
800.595.4401 or 615.292.5888
615.292.0777 (fax)

Emma helps organizations everywhere communicate & market in style.
Visit us online athttp://www.myemma.com
Jul 30 '07 #3

P: n/a
Ehsan wrote:
hi
coulde any one show me the usage of "yield" keyword specially in this
example:
"""Fibonacci sequences using generators

This program is part of "Dive Into Python", a free Python book for
experienced programmers. Visit http://diveintopython.org/ for the
latest version.
"""

__author__ = "Mark Pilgrim (ma**@diveintopython.org)"
__version__ = "$Revision: 1.2 $"
__date__ = "$Date: 2004/05/05 21:57:19 $"
__copyright__ = "Copyright (c) 2004 Mark Pilgrim"
__license__ = "Python"

def fibonacci(max):
a, b = 0, 1
while a < max:
yield a
a, b = b, a+b

for n in fibonacci(1000):
print n,
A function body with at least one yield expression (formerly a yield
statement) in its body returns a generator when called:
>>def gen(i):
.... for k in range(i):
.... yield k*k
....
>>g = gen(3)
g
<generator object at 0x7ff2822c>
>>>
The same function can be called multiple times to create independent
generators - the particular example I have given created a generator for
a given number of squares.

The generator can be used in an iterative context (such as a for loop),
but in actual fact it observes the Python iterator protocol, so the
generator has a .next() method, which can be used to extract the next
value from it. Calling the .next() method runs the generator until a
yield expression is encountered, and the value of the yield expression
is the return value of the next method:
>>g.next()
0
>>g.next()
1
>>g.next()
4

When the generator function terminates (either with a return statement
or by dropping off the end) it raises a StopIteration exception. This
will terminate an iteration, but in other contexts it can be handled
just like any other exception:
>>g.next()
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
StopIteration
>>>
So the fibonacci example you quote is a generator function that will
yield a sequence of Fibonacci numbers up to but not including the value
of its argument.

regards
Steve
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Jul 31 '07 #4

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