## Grades 4 – 8

##### Age: different units of time and estimation

##### Bar graphs

##### Bias: its effects on survey results

##### Circle graphs, pie charts

##### Comparing data and drawing conclusions

##### Conclusions you can or cannot make from a survey

##### Fractions, ratios, measurement

##### Investigating a question or hypothesis, use of graphs

##### Mean, median and mode

##### Percentages, estimation and forecasting

##### Scatter plots

##### Stem and leaf plots

## Grades 9 – 12

### Analyzing data

##### Comparing two datasets on a phenomenon using frequency tables and graphs; identifying variables that influence the phenomenon

##### Examining a hypothesis by comparing data from two groups of respondents; Histograms, quartiles, standard deviations

##### Analyzing Canadian data on recycling and household environmental responsibility

##### Analyzing a time-use dataset

##### The effect of hidden variables on the analysis of different hypotheses; Outliers, maximum & minimum values, range, average, significant difference, contingency table, population, frequencies, anthropometric variable

##### Investigating a hypothesis

##### Measures of central tendency; Frequency tables and graphs; Extrapolations

### Exploring relationships between variables

##### Scatter plots and lines of best fit; **plotted manually**

##### Scatter plots and lines of best fit created manually,** then using technology**; Line of best fit; median-median line method; Least squares regression method

##### Modelling data with linear functions using analytical software

##### How controlled variables and size of the sample affect whether or not a relationship exists between two variables

### Sampling

1. Variations in samples

- Sample, population, mean, standard deviation, standard error of the mean
- Histograms and frequency polygons
- sample sizes

2. Confidence intervals

- normal distribution, central limit theorem
*Sample size*: choosing enough cases to effectively compare different groups.- Data management activities using analytical software: The effect of sample size on data analysis