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Java final vs Py __del__

Hi !

I very wonder, when I get exp. in java with GC.

I'm Delphi programmer, so I get used to destructorin objects.

In Java the final method is not same, but is like to destructor (I has
been think...).

And then I try with some examples, I see, that the Java GC is
sometimes not call this method of objects, only exit from program.
So: the java programs sometimes end before the GC is use the final
methods on objects.

This mean that in Java the critical operations MUST do correctly by
the programmmers, or some data losing happened.
If it is open a file, then must write the critical modifications, and
must use the flush, and close to be sure to the datas are saved.

In the Py the __del__ is same java's final, or it is to be called in
every way by GC ?

I build this method as safe method: if the programmer don't do any
closing/freeing thing, I do that ?

simple example:

class a:
def __init__(self,filename):
self.__filename=filename
self.__data=[]
self.__file=None
def open(self):
self.__file=open(self.__filename,"w")
def write(self,data):
self.__data.append(data)
def close(self):
self.__file.writelines(self.__data)
self.__file.close()
self.__file=None
def __del__(self):
if self.__file<>None:
self.close()
# like destructor: we do the things are forgotten by
programmer

Thanx for infos:
KK


Jul 18 '05 #1
2 1619
Kepes Krisztian <Ke*************@peto.hu> wrote in
news:ma*************************************@pytho n.org:
In the Py the __del__ is same java's final, or it is to be called in
every way by GC ?
There is more than one implementation of Python. In C Python, __del__ will
be called as soon as there are no more references to the object, but the
Java implementation of Python will never call __del__ until the object is
garbage collected.

Even in removing the last reference to an object, which causes __del__ to
be called can happen in a slightly suprising way. Usually a variable going
out of scope would be sufficient to release the object it referred to
(assuming of course there are no other references to the same object), but
if a function throws an exception, the objects referenced by the local
variable will have their lifetimes extended, typically until the next time
an exception is thrown (which probably happens in a completely unrelated
function). The garbage collector can also cause objects to be released by
collecting the objects which kept them alive, but if an object that
participates directly in a cycle has a __del__ method then it will never be
garbage collected, so its __del__ will never be called.

When Python exits, it does its best to ensure that all objects are released
in an orderly manner, but sometimes that just isn't possible. So some
objects may not get their __del__ methods called on program exit, and other
objects may find that when __del__ is called, there are no other objects
around for them to reference.

I build this method as safe method: if the programmer don't do any
closing/freeing thing, I do that ?
No, this won't work reliably. If you want to do this, look at the atexit
function.

simple example:

class a:
def __init__(self,filename):
self.__filename=filename
self.__data=[]
self.__file=None
def open(self):
self.__file=open(self.__filename,"w")
def write(self,data):
self.__data.append(data)
def close(self):
self.__file.writelines(self.__data)
self.__file.close()
self.__file=None
def __del__(self):
if self.__file<>None:
self.close()
# like destructor: we do the things are forgotten by
programmer

Thanx for infos:


What I would suggest you do here, is something like (this is untested code,
so it may have errors):

import weakref
import atexit

ObjectsToClose = weakref.WeakValueDictionary()

def CloseObjects():
try:
while true:
key, o = ObjectsToClose.popitem()
o.close()
except:
pass

atexit.register(CloseObjects)

class a:
def __init__(self,filename):
self.__filename=filename
self.__data=[]
self.__file=None
ObjectsToClose[id(self)] = self
... rest of class a goes here ...

This code will ensure that the close method gets called on each of your
objects when the program exits (unless you are running on Windows and the
user uses control+break to kill the program --- if you are then you'll need
some additional code to ensure that atexit gets called correctly).

The WeakValueDictionary will automatically remove from itself any objects
which are destroyed before the program closes.

--
Duncan Booth du****@rcp.co.uk
int month(char *p){return(124864/((p[0]+p[1]-p[2]&0x1f)+1)%12)["\5\x8\3"
"\6\7\xb\1\x9\xa\2\0\4"];} // Who said my code was obscure?
Jul 18 '05 #2
Kepes Krisztian wrote:
Hi !

I very wonder, when I get exp. in java with GC.

I'm Delphi programmer, so I get used to destructorin objects.

In Java the final method is not same, but is like to destructor (I has
been think...).

And then I try with some examples, I see, that the Java GC is
sometimes not call this method of objects, only exit from program.
So: the java programs sometimes end before the GC is use the final
methods on objects.

This mean that in Java the critical operations MUST do correctly by
the programmmers, or some data losing happened.
If it is open a file, then must write the critical modifications, and
must use the flush, and close to be sure to the datas are saved.

In the Py the __del__ is same java's final, or it is to be called in
every way by GC ?

I build this method as safe method: if the programmer don't do any
closing/freeing thing, I do that ?

simple example:

class a:
def __init__(self,filename):
self.__filename=filename
self.__data=[]
self.__file=None
def open(self):
self.__file=open(self.__filename,"w")
def write(self,data):
self.__data.append(data)
def close (self):
self.__file.writelines(self.__data)
self.__file.close()
self.__file=None
def __del__(self):
if self.__file<>None:
self.close()
# like destructor: we do the things are forgotten by
programmer

Thanx for infos:
KK


Generally, in langauges that use GC, you should not use the GC for
resource management such as file handles, database connections, graphics
contexts, etc.. Partially because you can't really determine when/if
they will be called. Partially because if you are dealing with a
limited resource, then you need to be managing the use of that
resource. The only resource you should rely on the GC to manage is memory.

For what it's worth, Python allows the registering of a callback
function that will be called by the VM when the system is about to shut down

Jul 18 '05 #3

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