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sqlstring -- a library to build a SELECT statement

After some thought on what I need in a Python ORM (multiple primary
keys, complex joins, case statements etc.), and after having built
these libraries for other un-named languages, I decided to start at the
bottom. What seems to plague many ORM systems is the syntactic
confusion and string-manipulation required to build the SQL Statements.
If you want to do a Left Outer Join, support nested functions, and a
nested conditional clause, you'd be building more of a string library
than an ORM. Let's not even mention syntactical differences between
databases, data types, and such.

My solution is sqlstring. A single-purpose library: to create SQL
statement objects. These objects (such as sqlstring.Selec t), represent
complex SQL Statements, but as Python objects. The benefit is that you
can, at run-time, "build" the statement pythonically, without
getting bogged down in String Manipulation. The theory is that once in
use, things that were complex (string magic) become simpler, and allow
the program to worry about higher-level issues.

An Example:
import sqlstring
model = sqlstring.Table Factory()
print model.person SELECT
person.*
FROM
[person] person person_smith = model.person \ ** (model.person.f irst_name == "Smith") print person_smith SELECT
person.*
FROM
[person] person
WHERE person.first_na me = 'Smith' print person_smith("p arty_id", "first_name ") \

< < model.address ** (\
model.address.p arty_id == model.person.pa rty_id)
SELECT
party_id party_id,
first_name first_name,
address.*
FROM
[person] person
LEFT OUTER JOIN [address] address ON
address.party_i d = person.party_id
WHERE person.first_na me = 'Smith'

Things can get much more interesting than this, including nested
sub-selects (anywhere), conditional groups (and/or groups nested using
& and |) and even CASE statements.

Some of this stuff has been around for a while (using "magic" objects
to build where clauses, etc.). But I'm trying to take it all the
way--to a legit Select statement.

While still in the early stages, it does work with a great many sql
statements, as seen in the test suite. Currently supported are CASE
statements, Nested conditional clauses, nested queries and most join
types. At this point, I'm interested in getting feedback from the
community on several fronts:

1. The Operator Overload model. I've chosen to overload Python's
operators to give a short-hand syntax to most of the things you'd
want to do with a select statement. The rest are accessable via
methods. Currently ** is the "where" operator, // is the "in"
operator, % the "like" operator and ^ aliases columns. Other
overloads are as you'd expect- + / - * == all result in Expression
Objects that dish out the right SQL string. The question is, is the
"leap" in syntax to confusing? Is there a cleaner way to do this?
(Functions for example)
2. How to best add further sql function support? Adding magic
callable objects to columns came to mind, but this has it's own set
of issues. I'm leaning towards a magic object in the sqlstring
module. For example:

sqlstring.F.sub string(0, 4, person.first_na me)

would result in: substring(0, 4, person.first_na me). the F object
could be put in the local scope for short-hand.
3. I'm undecided on how best to handle database specific
overwrites. I want this to be as easy as possible. I'm thinking about
subclassing Expressions with a naming scheme on the Sub-Class (such as
CaseExpression_ oracle). Then the __init__ factory could dish out the
right version of the object based on the the requestor. This brings up
lots of questions, such as how to support multiple types of databases
at the same time.

Eventually the library should include all of the basic SQL
Statements, including UPDATE, INSERT and CREATE statements. This is
mostly for completeness, though. SELECT statements tend to be the most
complex.

The library can be downloaded at http://betur.net/download.php

Any other thoughts or comments are very much appreciated

Oct 20 '05 #1
15 2733
On Oct 19, 2005, at 9:18 PM, gr****@gmail.co m wrote:

<snip>
My solution is sqlstring. A single-purpose library: to create SQL
statement objects. These objects (such as sqlstring.Selec t), represent
complex SQL Statements, but as Python objects.


<snip>

First of all, I like this idea. I've been thinking about doing
something similar but am stuck with SQLObject for the moment. The
ability to construct complex expressions in pieces and then mix and
match them would be killer.

I think some operator overloading, especially the obvious cases like
==, is cleaner than using only functions because it lets you order
things normally. But some of the operator choices are non-intuitive.
Personally, I would make something like 'alias' a function or class,
rather than overloading XOR. Not sure about ** for where.

Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)

Also, you have to be really careful of operator precedence.

Have you ever used Pyparsing? Its use of a combination of classes and
operator overloading works pretty well.

For SQL function calls, don't you also want to support stored
procedures? In that case, you don't want pre-set magic functions so
much as a function that takes a string parameter for a function name
and then a list of function parameters.
print person_smith("p arty_id", "first_name ") \

< < model.address ** (\
model.address.p arty_id == model.person.pa rty_id)
SELECT
party_id party_id,
first_name first_name,
address.*
FROM
[person] person
LEFT OUTER JOIN [address] address ON
address.party_i d = person.party_id
WHERE person.first_na me = 'Smith'


See, this is where I'm not sure about operator precedence. If <<
binds tighter than **, it works, because the << operator would make a
'join' object and then the ** could be interpreted as an 'on' clause.
But if ** binds tighter you get an extra 'where' clause on the
address table, and then a join...

Some functions might be more workable.

- Jason

Oct 20 '05 #2

Jason Stitt wrote:

I think some operator overloading, especially the obvious cases like
==, is cleaner than using only functions because it lets you order
things normally. But some of the operator choices are non-intuitive.
Personally, I would make something like 'alias' a function or class,
rather than overloading XOR. Not sure about ** for where. My strategy is to do both. Have a "where" method that could be called
instead of ** (ie. person.where(pe rson.last_name= ="smith"), but also
allow for the ** syntax. After using it for a while, I'm finding the
** and ^ for alias very clear. Alias function brings up the issue of
name-space (since table.alias could be a column if not a special
method.) I'm assuming people don't use where, select, or other SQL key
words as column names, and if they do, they have a table["column"]
syntax to fall back on. But I digress. A method makes sense, though.

Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)
// was a bit of a stretch. I'd initially thought it for the "where"
clause, becuase it's lower precedence than ** (I think), and really
late at night // kind of looks like a W. I decided against it because
it looks to close to a comment in some other languages.

Python "in" clause doesn't seem exploitable in any way--probably a good
thing. I did add a "in_" method (name is arguable), which does the
same thing, also a not_in.
Have you ever used Pyparsing? Its use of a combination of classes and
operator overloading works pretty well. I took a look at it. Seems like a happy balance there--with the
overloading. <a
href="http://www.aminus.org/blogs/index.php/fumanchu/2005/08/11/where_dejavu_fi ts_in_the_orm_c osmos">Dejavu</a>
is another cool solution--using Lambda expressions. But it goes into
scary bytecode stuff (though it's well contained).

For SQL function calls, don't you also want to support stored
procedures? In that case, you don't want pre-set magic functions so
much as a function that takes a string parameter for a function name
and then a list of function parameters. This is what I had in mind (echo.py in the distribution). The only
issue becomes knowing when to quote the parameters (is a string always
a string?). I 've ended up quoting everything, and forcing the user to
supply table.column notation if they don't want it quoted.
> print person_smith("p arty_id", "first_name ") \
>

< < model.address ** (\
model.address.p arty_id == model.person.pa rty_id)
SELECT
party_id party_id,
first_name first_name,
address.*
FROM
[person] person
LEFT OUTER JOIN [address] address ON
address.party_i d = person.party_id
WHERE person.first_na me = 'Smith'


See, this is where I'm not sure about operator precedence. If <<
binds tighter than **, it works, because the << operator would make a
'join' object and then the ** could be interpreted as an 'on' clause.
But if ** binds tighter you get an extra 'where' clause on the
address table, and then a join...

There's a little dark magic going on with the precedence here. The **
is higher precedence, so it happens first, and is applied to the
address table object, which is then joined into person (with the <<
operator), and pulling in the existing where on address. This sounds
bad, but it allows for where clauses to trickle up through the python
expression, which is how I get a + b >> c to behave as expected.
Thanks for the positive feedback!

Runar

Oct 20 '05 #3
gr****@gmail.co m wrote:
Jason Stitt wrote:
Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)

[snip]
Python "in" clause doesn't seem exploitable in any way


Sure it is. Just override __contains__.

STeVe
Oct 20 '05 #4
gr****@gmail.co m wrote:
These objects (such as sqlstring.Selec t), represent
complex SQL Statements, but as Python objects. The benefit is that you
can, at run-time, "build" the statement pythonically, without
getting bogged down in String Manipulation. The theory is that once in
use, things that were complex (string magic) become simpler, and allow
the program to worry about higher-level issues.
...
Some of this stuff has been around for a while (using "magic" objects
to build where clauses, etc.). But I'm trying to take it all the
way--to a legit Select statement.

While still in the early stages, it does work with a great many sql
statements, as seen in the test suite. Currently supported are CASE
statements, Nested conditional clauses, nested queries and most join
types. At this point, I'm interested in getting feedback from the
community on several fronts:

1. The Operator Overload model. I've chosen to overload Python's
operators to give a short-hand syntax to most of the things you'd
want to do with a select statement. The rest are accessable via
methods. Currently ** is the "where" operator, // is the "in"
operator, % the "like" operator and ^ aliases columns. Other
overloads are as you'd expect- + / - * == all result in Expression
Objects that dish out the right SQL string. The question is, is the
"leap" in syntax to confusing? Is there a cleaner way to do this?
(Functions for example)
The big operator question will be: how will "and" and "or" be
implemented? This is always a sticking point because of Python's
short-circuiting behaviors regarding them (the resultant bytecode will
include a JUMP).

An alternative is to stuff the representation into a string, which can
then be parsed however one likes.

For Dejavu (http://projects.amor.org/dejavu), I didn't do either
one--instead I used lambdas to express the where clause, so that:

f = logic.Expressio n(lambda x: ('Rick' in x.Name) or
(x.Birthdate == datetime.date(1 970, 1, 1)))
units = sandbox.recall( Person, f)

might produce, in the bowels of the ORM:

"SELECT * FROM [Person] WHERE [Person].[Name] Like '%Rick%' or
[Person].[Birthdate] = #1/1/1970#"

Note that the tablename is provided in a separate step. The translation
is based on the codewalk.py and logic.py modules, which are in the
public domain if you want to use any part of them. See
http://projects.amor.org/dejavu/svn/trunk/
2. How to best add further sql function support? Adding magic
callable objects to columns came to mind, but this has it's own set
of issues. I'm leaning towards a magic object in the sqlstring
module. For example:

sqlstring.F.sub string(0, 4, person.first_na me)

would result in: substring(0, 4, person.first_na me). the F object
could be put in the local scope for short-hand.
This is a hard problem, since your sqlstring module doesn't control the
result sets, and so can't provide fallback mechanisms if a given
database does not support a given function (or operator, or minute
detail of how a function or operator works; for example, LIKE is
case-insensitive in MS SQL Server but case-sensitive in PostgreSQL). If
you're going to use subclasses to handle "database-specific overwrites"
(below), then you'll probably want to stick such functions in that base
class (and override them in subclasses), as well.
3. I'm undecided on how best to handle database specific
overwrites. I want this to be as easy as possible. I'm thinking about
subclassing Expressions with a naming scheme on the Sub-Class (such as
CaseExpression_ oracle). Then the __init__ factory could dish out the
right version of the object based on the requestor. This brings up
lots of questions, such as how to support multiple types of databases
at the same time.


See the Adapter and SQLDecompiler classes in
http://projects.amor.org/dejavu/svn/trunk/storage/db.py (and the
store*.py modules) for some examples of using subclassing to produce
database-specific syntax. There, it's one Adapter class per supported
DB-type; you might consider keeping the Expression objects themselves
free from SQL, and transform the Expressions to SQL in a separate
class, which you could then subclass.

Just a couple of thoughts from someone who's done the
string-manipulation dance once before. ;) I must admit I've always
punted when it came time to produce complex joins or CASE
statements--Dejavu simply doesn't provide that level of expressivity,
preferring instead to hide it behind the object layer.
Robert Brewer
System Architect
Amor Ministries
fu******@amor.o rg

Oct 20 '05 #5
Jason Stitt wrote:
On Oct 19, 2005, at 9:18 PM, gr****@gmail.co m wrote:

<snip>
My solution is sqlstring. A single-purpose library: to create SQL
statement objects. These objects (such as sqlstring.Selec t), represent
complex SQL Statements, but as Python objects.

<snip>

First of all, I like this idea. I've been thinking about doing
something similar but am stuck with SQLObject for the moment. The
ability to construct complex expressions in pieces and then mix and
match them would be killer.

I think some operator overloading, especially the obvious cases like
==, is cleaner than using only functions because it lets you order
things normally. But some of the operator choices are non-intuitive.
Personally, I would make something like 'alias' a function or class,
rather than overloading XOR. Not sure about ** for where.

Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)
class inplus(object): .... def __contains__(se lf, thing):
.... print "Do I have a", thing, "?"
.... return True
.... x = inplus()
"Steev" in x Do I have a Steev ?
True

[...]

regards
Steve
--
Steve Holden +44 150 684 7255 +1 800 494 3119
Holden Web LLC www.holdenweb.com
PyCon TX 2006 www.python.org/pycon/

Oct 20 '05 #6
On Oct 20, 2005, at 2:19 AM, Steve Holden wrote:
Jason Stitt wrote:

Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)
class inplus(object):

... def __contains__(se lf, thing):
... print "Do I have a", thing, "?"
... return True
...


I stand corrected. <excuse>Python. org was intermittently down
yesterday</excuse> so I was trying to play around with the
interactive interpreter and missed it.

For future reference:
http://www.python.org/doc/ref/specialnames.html

However 'in' seems to coerce the return value of __contains__ to True
or False, even if you return an object reference.

- Jason
Oct 20 '05 #7
On Oct 19, 2005, at 11:55 PM, gr****@gmail.co m wrote:

Jason Stitt wrote:

Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)


// was a bit of a stretch. I'd initially thought it for the "where"
clause, becuase it's lower precedence than ** (I think), and really
late at night // kind of looks like a W. I decided against it because
it looks to close to a comment in some other languages.

Python "in" clause doesn't seem exploitable in any way--probably a
good
thing. I did add a "in_" method (name is arguable), which does the
same thing, also a not_in.


What about modifying the overloaded == to produce 'in' if the right-
hand side is a list? Then you can more easily generate statements
dynamically:

def makeCond(name):
return someOtherCond & (model.table.na me == name)

makeCond("foo")
makeCond(["foo", "bar"])

And it doesn't require two different functions.

As long as there is no case where you might actually want to test if
a column value equals a list, it should work. Is there? Some DBs
support an Array type, but in general that might be better handled
with an Array class, anyway.

- Jason, fingers crossed that all this black magic doesn't affect
one's chances in the afterlife ;)

Oct 20 '05 #8
> The big operator question will be: how will "and" and "or" be
implemented? This is always a sticking point because of Python's
short-circuiting behaviors regarding them (the resultant bytecode will
include a JUMP).
I'm using the Boolean | and & operators for logical groups, eg (a | b |
(b & c)). This might seem ugly to pureists, but solves all of the
short-circuit issues. It does require the user to use excessive
parentheses, becuase | evaluates before ==. Another option is to use
functions-- AND(EQ(a, 1), OR(IN(B,(1,2,3) ))) -- But I find this hard to
read. But mixing the two is sometimes clean: EQ(a,1) & LT(b,2). But
having too many ways of doing things doesn't seem very pythonic.

An alternative is to stuff the representation into a string, which can
then be parsed however one likes.

For Dejavu (http://projects.amor.org/dejavu), I didn't do either
one--instead I used lambdas to express the where clause, so that:

f = logic.Expressio n(lambda x: ('Rick' in x.Name) or
(x.Birthdate == datetime.date(1 970, 1, 1)))
units = sandbox.recall( Person, f)

might produce, in the bowels of the ORM:

"SELECT * FROM [Person] WHERE [Person].[Name] Like '%Rick%' or
[Person].[Birthdate] = #1/1/1970#"

Note that the tablename is provided in a separate step. The translation
is based on the codewalk.py and logic.py modules, which are in the
public domain if you want to use any part of them. See
http://projects.amor.org/dejavu/svn/trunk/
This is a very elegant solution, so much so that I almost didn't go
down the path of sqlstring. Having support for lambda expressions is
still an option, though I wanted to try object operator
overloading/methods first--too see if I could avoid the Bytecode issue.
2. How to best add further sql function support? Adding magic
callable objects to columns came to mind, but this has it's own set
of issues. I'm leaning towards a magic object in the sqlstring
module. For example:

sqlstring.F.sub string(0, 4, person.first_na me)

would result in: substring(0, 4, person.first_na me). the F object
could be put in the local scope for short-hand.
This is a hard problem, since your sqlstring module doesn't control the
result sets, and so can't provide fallback mechanisms if a given
database does not support a given function (or operator, or minute
detail of how a function or operator works; for example, LIKE is
case-insensitive in MS SQL Server but case-sensitive in PostgreSQL). If
you're going to use subclasses to handle "database-specific overwrites"
(below), then you'll probably want to stick such functions in that base
class (and override them in subclasses), as well.

Good point. These things should be able to be "intercepte d" in the
database specific modules, so the library has a documented way
functions should be used (ANSI if applicable), but database specific
overwrites allow us to deal with issues or hacks (to emulate a
function) in databases.

See the Adapter and SQLDecompiler classes in
http://projects.amor.org/dejavu/svn/trunk/storage/db.py (and the
store*.py modules) for some examples of using subclassing to produce
database-specific syntax. There, it's one Adapter class per supported
DB-type; you might consider keeping the Expression objects themselves
free from SQL, and transform the Expressions to SQL in a separate
class, which you could then subclass.

Thanks. Your approach here had already inspired me, I'll take a look
at it again. Pulling the SQL out of the Expression objects is double
sided, but might be a way to cleanly support db syntax nuances. I'll
keep you posted.

Runar

Oct 20 '05 #9
> >> Using // for 'in' looks really weird, too. It's too bad you can't
overload Python's 'in' operator. (Can you? It seems to be hard-coded
to iterate through an iterable and look for the value, rather than
calling a private method like some other builtins do.)


// was a bit of a stretch. I'd initially thought it for the "where"
clause, becuase it's lower precedence than ** (I think), and really
late at night // kind of looks like a W. I decided against it because
it looks to close to a comment in some other languages.

Python "in" clause doesn't seem exploitable in any way--probably a
good
thing. I did add a "in_" method (name is arguable), which does the
same thing, also a not_in.


What about modifying the overloaded == to produce 'in' if the right-
hand side is a list? Then you can more easily generate statements
dynamically:

def makeCond(name):
return someOtherCond & (model.table.na me == name)

makeCond("foo")
makeCond(["foo", "bar"])

And it doesn't require two different functions.

As long as there is no case where you might actually want to test if
a column value equals a list, it should work. Is there? Some DBs
support an Array type, but in general that might be better handled
with an Array class, anyway.


This is a great idea, and should be the default behaviour for lists.
It does present a problem if the right hand expression is a SELECT
object, though. Both of these are valid syntax:

id = (select max(id) from table)
id in (select id from table)

Also, SQLite allows for column in table_name syntax. I've never seen
that before, but I wanted to support that, there'd be no way of knowing
in vs. ==.

On this line of thought, what about the += operator? That might be
more intuative than //. I could even use -= for not in.

Runar

Oct 20 '05 #10

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In today's digital age, having a compelling online presence is paramount for businesses aiming to thrive in a competitive landscape. At the heart of this digital strategy lies an intricately woven tapestry of website design and digital marketing. It's not merely about having a website; it's about crafting an immersive digital experience that captivates audiences and drives business growth. The Art of Business Website Design Your website is...
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8873
by: Hystou | last post by:
Overview: Windows 11 and 10 have less user interface control over operating system update behaviour than previous versions of Windows. In Windows 11 and 10, there is no way to turn off the Windows Update option using the Control Panel or Settings app; it automatically checks for updates and installs any it finds, whether you like it or not. For most users, this new feature is actually very convenient. If you want to control the update process,...
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7697
agi2029
by: agi2029 | last post by:
Let's talk about the concept of autonomous AI software engineers and no-code agents. These AIs are designed to manage the entire lifecycle of a software development project—planning, coding, testing, and deployment—without human intervention. Imagine an AI that can take a project description, break it down, write the code, debug it, and then launch it, all on its own.... Now, this would greatly impact the work of software developers. The idea...
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4352
by: TSSRALBI | last post by:
Hello I'm a network technician in training and I need your help. I am currently learning how to create and manage the different types of VPNs and I have a question about LAN-to-LAN VPNs. The last exercise I practiced was to create a LAN-to-LAN VPN between two Pfsense firewalls, by using IPSEC protocols. I succeeded, with both firewalls in the same network. But I'm wondering if it's possible to do the same thing, with 2 Pfsense firewalls...
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3027
by: 6302768590 | last post by:
Hai team i want code for transfer the data from one system to another through IP address by using C# our system has to for every 5mins then we have to update the data what the data is updated we have to send another system
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1989
bsmnconsultancy
by: bsmnconsultancy | last post by:
In today's digital era, a well-designed website is crucial for businesses looking to succeed. Whether you're a small business owner or a large corporation in Toronto, having a strong online presence can significantly impact your brand's success. BSMN Consultancy, a leader in Website Development in Toronto offers valuable insights into creating effective websites that not only look great but also perform exceptionally well. In this comprehensive...

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