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Class layout

P: n/a
Hi,

the following code is the boiled-down version of something that
gives us trouble on GCC. In the real code, 'F' is some fixed-size
array class, 'Q' and 'V' are derived classes that probably aren't
very interesting for this question, 'B' is a 4x4 matrix base and
'M' is the matrix class in use.
The code works with VC and several versions of GCC, but in one
test using GCC it breaks with nonsensical values for the 2nd-4th
row of the matrix. The trouble is, it only does so when no
additional statements are added to the function (that's mimicked
here in 'main()') and not, if the code is run under a debugger.
The problem doesn't appear with this boiled-down example code, but
looking at the code and the symptoms, I have the suspicion that
this invokes UB anyway and would like the group's opinion whether
my suspicion is right.
'M<T>::data()'assumes that all of data members of the inherited
'F's are laid out contiguously. Can we assume this regarding to
the standard? My suspicion is, we can't. But I don't know why we
either can and can't. I believe struct layout in C is rather
strict and reliable, but I don't know what's needed of the C++-
only features (inheritance, templates etc.) is needed to make
C++ deviate from that.

TIA,

Schobi
--8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<--

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

template< typename T >
struct F {
T val[4];
F() {val[0]=T();val[1]=T();val[2]=T();val[3]=T();}
F(T a0, T a1, T a2, T a3) {val[0]=a0 ;val[1]=a1 ;val[2]=a2 ;val[3]=a3 ;}
T& operator[](std::size_t i) {return val[i];}
const T& operator[](std::size_t i) const {return val[i];}
T* begin() {return &val[0];}
const T* begin() const {return &val[0];}
T* end () {return &val[4];}
const T* end () const {return &val[4];}
};

template< typename T >
struct Q : public F<T{
Q() : F() {}
Q(T a0, T a1, T a2, T a3) : F(a0,a1,a2,a3) {}
};

template< typename T >
struct V : public Q<T{
V() : Q() {}
V(T a0, T a1, T a2, T a3) : Q(a0,a1,a2,a3) {}
};

template< typename T >
struct B : public V< V<T {
typedef V<TRow;

B() {assign( 0, 0, 0, 0
, 0, 0, 0, 0
, 0, 0, 0, 0
, 0, 0, 0, 0 );}

B( T a00, T a01, T a02, T a03
, T a10, T a11, T a12, T a13
, T a20, T a21, T a22, T a23
, T a30, T a31, T a32, T a33 ) {assign( a00, a01, a02, a03
, a10, a11, a12, a13
, a20, a21, a22, a23
, a30, a31, a32, a33 );}

void assign( T a00, T a01, T a02, T a03
, T a10, T a11, T a12, T a13
, T a20, T a21, T a22, T a23
, T a30, T a31, T a32, T a33 )
{
this->val[0][0]=a00;this->val[0][1]=a01;this->val[0][2]=a02;this->val[0][3]=a03;
this->val[1][0]=a10;this->val[1][1]=a11;this->val[1][2]=a12;this->val[1][3]=a13;
this->val[2][0]=a20;this->val[2][1]=a21;this->val[2][2]=a22;this->val[2][3]=a23;
this->val[3][0]=a30;this->val[3][1]=a31;this->val[3][2]=a32;this->val[3][3]=a33;
}

};

template< typename T >
struct M : public B<T{
M() : B<T>(), i() {}
const T* data() const {return B<T>::begin()->begin();}
int i;
};

int main()
{
M<floatmatrix;
matrix.assign(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,1 5);
const float* data = matrix.data();

for( std::size_t i = 0; i < 16; ++i ) {
std::cout << data[i] << '\n';
}

return 0;
}
Nov 10 '08 #1
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2 Replies


P: n/a
Hendrik Schober wrote:
Hi,

the following code is the boiled-down version of something that
gives us trouble on GCC. In the real code, 'F' is some fixed-size
array class, 'Q' and 'V' are derived classes that probably aren't
very interesting for this question, 'B' is a 4x4 matrix base and
'M' is the matrix class in use.
The code works with VC and several versions of GCC, but in one
test using GCC it breaks with nonsensical values for the 2nd-4th
row of the matrix. The trouble is, it only does so when no
additional statements are added to the function (that's mimicked
here in 'main()') and not, if the code is run under a debugger.
The problem doesn't appear with this boiled-down example code, but
looking at the code and the symptoms, I have the suspicion that
this invokes UB anyway and would like the group's opinion whether
my suspicion is right.
'M<T>::data()'assumes that all of data members of the inherited
'F's are laid out contiguously. Can we assume this regarding to
the standard?
No. Who knows what kind of padding your compiler sticks in your
'F' class right after the 'val'...
My suspicion is, we can't. But I don't know why we
either can and can't. I believe struct layout in C is rather
strict and reliable, but I don't know what's needed of the C++-
only features (inheritance, templates etc.) is needed to make
C++ deviate from that.

TIA,

Schobi
--8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<----8<--

#include <iostream>
#include <string>

template< typename T >
struct F {
T val[4];
F()
{val[0]=T();val[1]=T();val[2]=T();val[3]=T();} F(T a0, T a1, T
a2, T a3) {val[0]=a0 ;val[1]=a1
;val[2]=a2 ;val[3]=a3 ;} T& operator[](std::size_t i) {return
val[i];} const T& operator[](std::size_t i) const {return val[i];} T*
begin() {return
&val[0];} const T* begin() const {return
&val[0];} T* end () {return
&val[4];} const T* end () const {return
&val[4];} };
Your use of 'flowed' format is apparent here... :-)

But let me just say, ugh! Why couldn't you initialise the 'val' at
least in the default constructor? You could do

F() : val() {}

right?
>
template< typename T >
struct Q : public F<T{
Q() : F() {}
Q(T a0, T a1, T a2, T a3) : F(a0,a1,a2,a3) {}
};

template< typename T >
struct V : public Q<T{
V() : Q() {}
V(T a0, T a1, T a2, T a3) : Q(a0,a1,a2,a3) {}
};

template< typename T >
struct B : public V< V<T {
typedef V<TRow;
I don't think you're using this typedef. Are you?
>
B() {assign( 0, 0, 0, 0
, 0, 0, 0, 0
, 0, 0, 0, 0
, 0, 0, 0, 0
);}
B( T a00, T a01, T a02, T a03
, T a10, T a11, T a12, T a13
, T a20, T a21, T a22, T a23
, T a30, T a31, T a32, T a33 ) {assign( a00, a01,
a02, a03 ,
a10, a11, a12,
a13 , a20,
a21, a22, a23 , a30, a31, a32, a33 );}
void assign( T a00, T a01, T a02, T a03
, T a10, T a11, T a12, T a13
, T a20, T a21, T a22, T a23
, T a30, T a31, T a32, T a33 )
{

this->val[0][0]=a00;this->val[0][1]=a01;this->val[0][2]=a02;this->val[0][3]=a03;
this->val[1][0]=a10;this->val[1][1]=a11;this->val[1][2]=a12;this->val[1][3]=a13;
this->val[2][0]=a20;this->val[2][1]=a21;this->val[2][2]=a22;this->val[2][3]=a23;
this->val[3][0]=a30;this->val[3][1]=a31;this->val[3][2]=a32;this->val[3][3]=a33;
}
};

template< typename T >
struct M : public B<T{
M() : B<T>(), i() {}
const T* data() const {return
B<T>::begin()->begin();} int i;
};

int main()
{
M<floatmatrix;
matrix.assign(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,1 5);
const float* data = matrix.data();

for( std::size_t i = 0; i < 16; ++i ) {
std::cout << data[i] << '\n';
}

return 0;
}
You could simply verify that the layout is like you expect. In the
constructor of the 'V' class, for example, you could simply do

if (sizeof(this) != sizeof(T) * 4)
throw "A-a-a-a-a-a-a";

V
--
Please remove capital 'A's when replying by e-mail
I do not respond to top-posted replies, please don't ask
Nov 11 '08 #2

P: n/a
Victor Bazarov wrote:
Hendrik Schober wrote:
[...]
>'M<T>::data()'assumes that all of data members of the inherited
'F's are laid out contiguously. Can we assume this regarding to
the standard?

No. Who knows what kind of padding your compiler sticks in your
'F' class right after the 'val'...
Thanks. I feared so.
What's needed to turn a class into a non-POD type?
[...]
>>
template< typename T >
struct F {
T val[4];
F()
{val[0]=T();val[1]=T();val[2]=T();val[3]=T();} F(T a0, T a1, T
a2, T a3) {val[0]=a0 ;val[1]=a1
;val[2]=a2 ;val[3]=a3 ;} T& operator[](std::size_t i) {return
val[i];} const T& operator[](std::size_t i) const {return val[i];} T*
begin() {return
&val[0];} const T* begin() const {return
&val[0];} T* end () {return
&val[4];} const T* end () const {return
&val[4];} };

Your use of 'flowed' format is apparent here... :-)
???
But let me just say, ugh! Why couldn't you initialise the 'val' at
least in the default constructor? You could do

F() : val() {}

right?
I didn't know you could do this with an array.
(I started with the original code. When I had removed
everything to make it a self-contained example, it already
didn't expose the problem anymore, so I only did a little
cleaning before presenting it here, without going into much
detail. I probably hadn't even looked consciously once at
this ctor.)
[...]
>template< typename T >
struct B : public V< V<T {
typedef V<TRow;

I don't think you're using this typedef. Are you?
It seems it's an oversight of the stripping-down process. :)
[...]
You could simply verify that the layout is like you expect. In the
constructor of the 'V' class, for example, you could simply do

if (sizeof(this) != sizeof(T) * 4)
throw "A-a-a-a-a-a-a";
We already tried. But as soon as any other code is added
to the mix, the problem is going away. It might be GCC's
optimizer choking.
V
Schobi
Nov 11 '08 #3

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