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Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak  
Share this Question
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On 12 Mar 2007 09:14:29 0700, in comp.lang.c , "cman"
<ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
This isn't a C question. Ask again in comp.programming or a maybe
maths group, and in the meantime, think about how twoway light
switches work, like the ones in the stairwell of most houses.

Mark McIntyre
"Debugging is twice as hard as writing the code in the first place.
Therefore, if you write the code as cleverly as possible, you are,
by definition, not smart enough to debug it."
Brian Kernighan  
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"cman" <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor
each byte with ~0.
For more involved examples, one uses ^ in conjunction (NPI) with & and 
for reading, setting, and toggling flags within bytes.
Richard  
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"cman" writes:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The XOR is fundamental to cryptographic work. It is also used in binary
arithmetic. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adder_(electronics)  
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cman wrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
Don't post all your questions to comp.lang.c. This group only deals
with ISO C. Post nonC questions to appropriate groups. For this one,
comp.programming, alt.lang.asm, comp.lang.asm.x86, or sci.math might
be better candidates. The web is also a good resource for such simple
questions.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XOR>  
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On Mar 12, 9:14 am, "cman" <til...@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
You'll find some in here: http://home.pipeline.com/~hbaker1/hakmem/hakmem.html  
P: n/a
 rl*@hoekstrauitgeverij.nl (Richard Bos) writes:
"cman" <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor
each byte with ~0.
[...]
Surely it's simpler to invert the image itself, using the unary "~"
operator, rather than constructing another bitmap and xor'ing against
that.

Keith Thompson (The_Other_Keith) ks***@mib.org <http://www.ghoti.net/~kst>
San Diego Supercomputer Center <* <http://users.sdsc.edu/~kst>
"We must do something. This is something. Therefore, we must do this."
 Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn, "Yes Minister"  
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Richard Bos wrote:
>"cman" <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor each byte with ~0.
Too complicated ...
#include <stdio.h>
extern delay_until_next_second(void);
void clock_simulator(void)
{
int sound = 0;
while (1)
{
printf(sound ? "Tick\n" : "Tock\n");
delay_until_next_second();
sound ^= 1;
}
}  
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santosh wrote:
cman wrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Don't post all your questions to comp.lang.c. This group only deals
with ISO C. Post nonC questions to appropriate groups. For this one,
comp.programming, alt.lang.asm, comp.lang.asm.x86, or sci.math might
be better candidates. The web is also a good resource for such simple
questions.
However C has an XOR operator, spelled '^'. The OP should just
read his C book.

Chuck F (cbfalconer at maineline dot net)
Available for consulting/temporary embedded and systems.
<http://cbfalconer.home.att.net>

Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com  
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Roberto Waltman <bo*********@rwaltman.comwrites:
Richard Bos wrote:
>>"cman" <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor each byte with ~0.
Too complicated ...
#include <stdio.h>
extern delay_until_next_second(void);
void clock_simulator(void)
{
int sound = 0;
while (1)
{
printf(sound ? "Tick\n" : "Tock\n");
delay_until_next_second();
sound ^= 1;
}
}
Simpler:
sound = 1  sound;
Even simpler:
sound = !sound;

Keith Thompson (The_Other_Keith) ks***@mib.org <http://www.ghoti.net/~kst>
San Diego Supercomputer Center <* <http://users.sdsc.edu/~kst>
"We must do something. This is something. Therefore, we must do this."
 Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn, "Yes Minister"  
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Keith Thompson <ks***@mib.orgwrites:
Roberto Waltman <bo*********@rwaltman.comwrites:
> #include <stdio.h> extern delay_until_next_second(void);
void clock_simulator(void) { int sound = 0; while (1) { printf(sound ? "Tick\n" : "Tock\n"); delay_until_next_second(); sound ^= 1; } }
Simpler:
sound = 1  sound;
Even simpler:
sound = !sound;
I'd probably write it like this (modulo coding style):
void clock_simulator(void)
{
while (1)
{
printf("Tock\n");
delay_until_next_second();
printf("Tick\n");
delay_until_next_second();
}
}

int main(void){char p[]="ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuv wxyz.\
\n",*q="kl BIcNBFr.NKEzjwCIxNJC";int i=sizeof p/2;char *strchr();int putchar(\
);while(*q){i+=strchr(p,*q++)p;if(i>=(int)sizeof p)i=sizeof p1;putchar(p[i]\
);}return 0;}  
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On Mar 12, 9:31 pm, Roberto Waltman <bookworm...@rwaltman.comwrote:
Richard Bos wrote:
"cman" <til...@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor
each byte with ~0.
Too complicated ...
#include <stdio.h>
extern delay_until_next_second(void);
void clock_simulator(void)
{
int sound = 0;
while (1)
{
printf(sound ? "Tick\n" : "Tock\n");
delay_until_next_second();
sound ^= 1;
Why an exclusive or with 1? Why not 8, or 42, or 197? And why not
simply
sound = !sound;
? This doesn't seem to me an obvious use of xor... which could just be
me, of course.
}
}
 
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Keith Thompson <ks***@mib.orgwrote:
>Surely it's simpler to invert the image itself, using the unary "~" operator, rather than constructing another bitmap and xor'ing against that.
<OT>
Yes, but probably what he was getting at was more along the lines of the
famous Atari (was it?) XOR patent for drawing the cursor, namely, that
you can "stamp" arbitrary data on other data, and remove it again with
XOR, since:
(x ^ y) ^ y == x
(I'm sure you already knew this, Keith; this post is for posterity.)
Cursor on:
....XXX.. XXXXXXXX XXX...XX
...XX.XX. XXXXXXXX XX..X..X
..XX...XX XXXXXXXX X..XXX..
..XXXXXXX XXXXXXXX X.......
..XX...XX XOR XXXXXXXX == X..XXX..
..XX...XX XXXXXXXX X..XXX..
..XX...XX XXXXXXXX X..XXX..
......... XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX
Then cursor off:
XXX...XX XXXXXXXX ...XXX..
XX..X..X XXXXXXXX ..XX.XX.
X..XXX.. XXXXXXXX .XX...XX
X....... XXXXXXXX .XXXXXXX
X..XXX.. XOR XXXXXXXX == .XX...XX
X..XXX.. XXXXXXXX .XX...XX
X..XXX.. XXXXXXXX .XX...XX
XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXX ........
Of course, the cursor could be anythingnot just a solid blockand the
character beneath would be restored to its original state when the
cursor was turned off.
IIRC, old versions of Windows would draw the window frame in XOR mode
when you were moving or resizing it. Ugly but effective.
</OT>
Beej, still looking for that elusive XNOT operation.  
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On Mar 12, 11:14 am, "cman" <til...@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms?
Hamming Distance = popcount(a^b)
I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
 
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Op Tue, 13 Mar 2007 00:21:51 +0100 (CET) schreef Beej Jorgensen:
<snip>
Beej, still looking for that elusive XNOT operation.
<OTLike this? http://mathworld.wolfram.com/XNOR.html
</OT>

Coos  
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Keith Thompson wrote:
>
Roberto Waltman <bo*********@rwaltman.comwrites:
Richard Bos wrote:
>The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor each byte with ~0.
Too complicated ...
sound ^= 1;
>
Simpler:
sound = 1  sound;
Even simpler:
sound = !sound;
That's less typing,
but I consider a logical operation on a variable
to be more complicated
than an arithmetic operation between a variable and a constant.

pete  
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In article <11**********************@t69g2000cwt.googlegroups .com>,
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Suppose you are trying to detect a zero crossing in a list of
values. There is a crossing if one value is less than zero and
the other is greater than zero. You could code something
such as:
(x < 0 && y 0)  (x 0 && y < 0)
or you could use the shorter
(x < 0) ^ (y < 0)
(Note: the two forms are not exactly equivilent if one of the values
is exactly 0; you need more data samples to decide zero crossings
if the values can be exactly 0.)

Is there any thing whereof it may be said, See, this is new? It hath
been already of old time, which was before us.  Ecclesiastes  
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Walter Roberson wrote:
In article <11**********************@t69g2000cwt.googlegroups .com>,
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Suppose you are trying to detect a zero crossing in a list of
values. There is a crossing if one value is less than zero and
the other is greater than zero. You could code something
such as:
(x < 0 && y 0)  (x 0 && y < 0)
or you could use the shorter
(x < 0) ^ (y < 0)
This too does not seem like an obvious use of xor to me.
(x < 0) != (y < 0)
(Note: the two forms are not exactly equivilent if one of the values
is exactly 0; you need more data samples to decide zero crossings
if the values can be exactly 0.)
 
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Keith Thompson <ks***@mib.orgwrote:
>... Even simpler:
sound = !sound;
Agreed, and that is what I would use if I needed something to cycle
between two states. But it would not qualify as an xor usage example,
would it?
Roberto Waltman
[ Please reply to the group,
return address is invalid ]  
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Roberto Waltman <us****@rwaltman.netwrites:
Keith Thompson <ks***@mib.orgwrote:
>>... Even simpler: sound = !sound;
Agreed, and that is what I would use if I needed something to cycle
between two states. But it would not qualify as an xor usage example,
would it?
No, it wouldn't. My point is that, given the existence of a simpler
and clearer method of doing the same thing, "sound ^= 1;' doesn't
qualify as a *practical* use of xor. With enough work, you can
replace many, perhaps most, perhaps even all, C operators with xor;
that doesn't mean it's a good idea to do so.

Keith Thompson (The_Other_Keith) ks***@mib.org <http://www.ghoti.net/~kst>
San Diego Supercomputer Center <* <http://users.sdsc.edu/~kst>
"We must do something. This is something. Therefore, we must do this."
 Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn, "Yes Minister"  
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Keith Thompson <ks***@mib.orgwrote: rl*@hoekstrauitgeverij.nl (Richard Bos) writes:
"cman" <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
The very simplest of applications: to invert a B&W bitmap image, xor
each byte with ~0.
Surely it's simpler to invert the image itself, using the unary "~"
operator, rather than constructing another bitmap and xor'ing against
that.
If that's all you're doing, yes. Often one uses a generic bitbltlike
facility to XOR the entire bitmap with a pattern, or another bitmap, of
one's choice. These facilities are usually heavily optimised, possibly
even more so than a handrolled loop to invert all bytes can be. In that
case, one would use the xorbitbltlike with a 1filled pattern to
invert it. And that would be the simplest use of XOR, though not the
simplest (but sometimes the most efficient) way to invert a bitmap.
Richard  
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cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
M.  
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Marcin Wolcendorf said:
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback. But
before I get onto that, can I just say that this exchange thingy is not
a great use of XOR? For one thing, it only works with integers. For
another, it's not very clear. For a third, it's hard to optimise. And
for a fourth, it breaks if you have pointers to integer, use *a ^= *b
etc, and a and b point to the same integer!
Now to get back to the OP.
XOR yields true if its operands differ. So:
A B A XOR B
F F F
F T T
T F T
T T F
It is often used in cryptography, because it has the useful property
that if C = P XOR K, then P = C XOR K.
Look up, for example, "one time pad" or "Feistel Network".

Richard Heathfield
"Usenet is a strange place"  dmr 29/7/1999 http://www.cpax.org.uk
email: rjh at the above domain,  www.  
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Richard Heathfield <rj*@see.sig.invalidwrote:
Marcin Wolcendorf said:
>cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size: a ^= b; b ^= a; a ^= b;
I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback. But
before I get onto that, can I just say that this exchange thingy is not
a great use of XOR? For one thing, it only works with integers.
Well, true I'd rather not use it with floats...
For
another, it's not very clear.
This is your opinion. The author did't ask for _clear_ things but for
practical.
For a third, it's hard to optimise.
a = b; is equally hard to optimise. What is your point?
And
for a fourth, it breaks if you have pointers to integer, use *a ^= *b
etc, and a and b point to the same integer!
You're sure of that? Checked that? Then run this:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
unsigned a = 10;
unsigned b = 20;
unsigned *c = &a;
unsigned *d = &b;
*c ^= *d;
*d ^= *c;
*c ^= *d;
printf("a= %d, b= %d\n", a, b);
}
and say with straight face, that you didn't get
a= 20, b= 10
M.  
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Marcin Wolcendorf said:
Richard Heathfield <rj*@see.sig.invalidwrote:
>Marcin Wolcendorf said:
[...xor...]
>>> Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size: a ^= b; b ^= a; a ^= b;
I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback. But before I get onto that, can I just say that this exchange thingy is not a great use of XOR? For one thing, it only works with integers.
Well, true I'd rather not use it with floats...
Indeed. But then, I'd rather not use it with ints either.
>
>For another, it's not very clear.
This is your opinion. The author did't ask for _clear_ things but for
practical.
Code you can't read is code you can't fix. Code you can't fix is not
practical code.
>
>For a third, it's hard to optimise.
a = b; is equally hard to optimise. What is your point?
Actually a = b; can be very simple to optimise. For example, if the
compiler knows that the two values are already the same, as it may well
do in some situations, it can omit the assignment completely. But the
compiler will have a much harder job guessing what you're up to with
the threestatementXOR thing, and so it will be more reluctant to
optimise.
>And for a fourth, it breaks if you have pointers to integer, use *a ^= *b etc, and a and b point to the same integer!
You're sure of that?
Yes.
Checked that?
Yes.
Then run this:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
unsigned a = 10;
unsigned b = 20;
unsigned *c = &a;
unsigned *d = &b;
*c ^= *d;
*d ^= *c;
*c ^= *d;
printf("a= %d, b= %d\n", a, b);
}
and say with straight face, that you didn't get
a= 20, b= 10
Your program does not illustrate my objection.
Run this instead:
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
unsigned a = 10;
unsigned *c = &a;
unsigned *d = &a;
*c ^= *d;
*d ^= *c;
*c ^= *d;
printf("a = %u\n", a);
return 0;
}
and tell me with a straight face that you got 10.

Richard Heathfield
"Usenet is a strange place"  dmr 29/7/1999 http://www.cpax.org.uk
email: rjh at the above domain,  www.  
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"Marcin Wolcendorf" <Wo*********@r00923.czespl.trw.comha scritto nel
messaggio news:f0**********@news.wp.pl...
Richard Heathfield <rj*@see.sig.invalidwrote:
>Marcin Wolcendorf said:
>>Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size: a ^= b; b ^= a; a ^= b;
I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback. But before I get onto that, can I just say that this exchange thingy is not a great use of XOR? For one thing, it only works with integers.
[snip]
>And for a fourth, it breaks if you have pointers to integer, use *a ^= *b etc, and a and b point to the same integer!
Reread the line above...
You're sure of that? Checked that? Then run this:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
main()
{
unsigned a = 10;
unsigned b = 20;
unsigned *c = &a;
unsigned *d = &b;
c and d don't point to the same integer.
*c ^= *d;
*d ^= *c;
*c ^= *d;
printf("a= %d, b= %d\n", a, b);
}
and say with straight face, that you didn't get
a= 20, b= 10
 
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Marcin Wolcendorf wrote:
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
M.
XOR is useful to toggle a single bit in a flagword. If you want the
state of the bit changed (a one goes to a zero, or a zero goes to a
one) XOR a bitmask with the flag word.
For instance.
int flagword;
# define TOGGLE_BIT 4
flagword ^= TOGGLE_BIT;
Bit 2 will now be in the opposite state, if it used to be a one it will
be a zero. If it used to be a zero it will be a one. This action is
occasionally useful, although it's not something I do every day.
Or, support I have two like devices with status indicated by a set of
bits in a control word. And I wish to see if both devices are in the
same state.
int device_a, device_b;
int sameness;
sameness = device_a ^ device_b;
if (sameness == 0)
/* devices are in the same state */
else
/* something is different. One bits in sameness will
tell which bits differ between device_a & device_b */
David Starr
David Starr  
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Marcin Wolcendorf wrote:
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
Don't use it. See what happens when &a == &b, or when the
variables cannot be handled by xor operations.

<http://www.cs.auckland.ac.nz/~pgut001/pubs/vista_cost.txt>
<http://www.securityfocus.com/columnists/423>
<http://www.aaxnet.com/editor/edit043.html>
cbfalconer at maineline.net

Posted via a free Usenet account from http://www.teranews.com  
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cman wrote:
>
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q
is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
/*
** (size ^ size  1) isolates the lowest set significant bit
** of (size), when (size) is equal to the sizeof one array member.
*/
void *losearch(const void *key, const void *base,
size_t nmemb, size_t size,
int (*compar)(const void *, const void *))
{
int comp;
size_t odd_mask, bytes, middle, high, low;
const unsigned char *array, *found;
found = NULL;
if (nmemb != 0) {
odd_mask = size ^ size  1;
array = base;
low = 0;
high = nmemb * size;
do {
bytes = high  low;
middle = (bytes & odd_mask ? bytes  size : bytes) / 2
+ low;
base = middle + array;
comp = compar(key, base);
if (comp 0) {
low = middle;
} else {
high = middle;
if (comp == 0) {
found = base;
}
}
} while (bytes != size);
}
return (void *)found;
}

pete  
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Marcin Wolcendorf <wo******@friko2.onet.plwrites:
>cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
It can be used to amaze fellow students with a smart XORbased solution
to the problem:
"We have a list of all the integer numbers from 0 up to the kth power
of two, except for one of the numbers. Write a program to find the
missing integer."
Other than that, it's just another useful bitwise operation :)
 Giorgos  
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Marcin Wolcendorf wrote:
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
>Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true or q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
Tilak
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
In monochrome graphics, exclusive "or" with screen memory
is used to put an image on the screen, then erase it, then
place the image at another position.

++
 Charles and Francis Richmond richmond at plano dot net 
++  
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Richard Heathfield wrote:
Marcin Wolcendorf said:
cman <ti****@gmail.comwrote:
Could you point me to the practical uses of XOR in assembly and
algorithms? I understand XOR to be "true if and only if p is true
or >q is true". Where is this used? I draw a blank on usage.
>
Tilak
Can be used to exchange values of two integers of the same size:
a ^= b;
b ^= a;
a ^= b;
I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback.
I think you have. The original was posted on March 12.
Brian  
P: n/a

Default User said:
Richard Heathfield wrote:
<snip>
>I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback.
I think you have. The original was posted on March 12.
Oh, okay  I believe you, obviously. My Usenet memory is good for
shortterm, and not too bad for (important) longterm, but six weeks?
No chance.

Richard Heathfield
"Usenet is a strange place"  dmr 29/7/1999 http://www.cpax.org.uk
email: rjh at the above domain,  www.  
P: n/a

Richard Heathfield wrote:
Default User said:
Richard Heathfield wrote:
<snip>
I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback.
I think you have. The original was posted on March 12.
Oh, okay  I believe you, obviously. My Usenet memory is good for
shortterm, and not too bad for (important) longterm, but six weeks?
No chance.
Well, I recognized that it was an old message, and looked it up on
Google Groups to get the exact date.
Brian  
P: n/a

Richard Heathfield wrote:
Default User said:
>Richard Heathfield wrote:
<snip>
>>I haven't seen the original yet, so this reply is half a piggyback.
I think you have. The original was posted on March 12.
Oh, okay  I believe you, obviously. My Usenet memory is good for
shortterm, and not too bad for (important) longterm, but six weeks?
No chance.
They say memory is the second thing to go. I forget what the first thing
is. :)
Ronald Reagan in later years opined that one of the good things about
Alzheimer's was that you get to meet so many new people every day.

Joe Wright
"Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler."
 Albert Einstein   
P: n/a

I got :
a=20, b=10
But then that's exactly what the program is supposed to do.
Am I missing something here?  
P: n/a

BiGYaN wrote:
I got :
a=20, b=10
But then that's exactly what the program is supposed to do.
Am I missing something here?
Context?

Ian Collins.  
P: n/a

BiGYaN <bi***********@gmail.comwrites:
I got :
a=20, b=10
But then that's exactly what the program is supposed to do.
Am I missing something here?
Yes, context. You need to quote enough of the parent article so your
followup makes sense to someone who hasn't seen the parent. You're
posting through groups.google.com, which does this for you
automatically.

Keith Thompson (The_Other_Keith) ks***@mib.org <http://www.ghoti.net/~kst>
San Diego Supercomputer Center <* <http://users.sdsc.edu/~kst>
"We must do something. This is something. Therefore, we must do this."
 Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn, "Yes Minister"   This discussion thread is closed Replies have been disabled for this discussion.   Question stats  viewed: 8759
 replies: 37
 date asked: Mar 12 '07
