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malloc and memory leaks

P: n/a
cs
This is the function malloc_m() that should be like malloc() but it
should find memory leak, and over bound writing in arrays.

How many errors do you see?
Thank you
********************************************
/* mallocm.c */
/* funzione di libreria per trattamento della memoria e rilevamento
errori */
/* uso: c_compiler malloc.c e usare malloc .obj */
/*
Declino ogni responsabilita' per qualsiasi danno
che potrebbe arrecare questo programma e ogni
garanzia che serva a qualche cosa; Il programma si
intende libero (free) per l'uso e per il
cambiamento.

*/
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <time.h>

/* MEM_LIMIT e' il limite del numero di diversi puntatori
ritornati da malloc_m */
#define MEM_LIMIT 100000
#define MAX_ARRAYS 255
#define UNS unsigned

/*************************CCCCCCC****************** ****************/
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

static unsigned yuyuy=0;
typedef double Align; /* per allineare alla double */

union header { /* header del blocco */
struct {union header* ptr; /* blocco successivo in free list */
unsigned size; /* dimensione di questo blocco */
}s;
Align x; /* forza l'allineamento dei blocchi */
};

typedef union header Header;
static Header base; /* lista vuota per iniziare */
static Header *freep=NULL; /* inizio della free list */

char name_ [ 1100 ] = {0}; /* name_== nome routines chiamate
*/
char memo_ [ 300 ] = {0}; /* stringa ove errori trovati in
memoria */
int n_i_ = 0 ;
int libero_m_ = 0 ; /* libero_m_==1 controllo tutti i
vettori a
ogni chiamate di free(); serve insieme a name_ per individuare le
routines che
sovrascrivono la memoria che non hanno (e.g. if(libero_m_)
init_w("nome_routines");) */

typedef struct {
void *p;
unsigned size;
unsigned piu;
unsigned meno;
}vettore_array;

static vettore_array **p_p_p_=0; /* lista di struct di puntatori
ritornati da malloc_m */
static unsigned i_i_i_=0; /* attuale indice nella lista */
static unsigned m_m_m_=0; /* massimo indice nella lista */
static char **list_ =0; /* lista dei vettori richiesti al
sys */
static unsigned list_i_=0;
static unsigned list_m_=0;
static int mem_init(unsigned siz)
{vettore_array **pp;
unsigned j;
/*---------------------*/
//printf("p_p_p_=%p i_i_i_==%u siz=%u ", (void*) p_p_p_, i_i_i_,
siz );
if(p_p_p_==0)
{pp= (vettore_array**) malloc( (siz+1) * sizeof *pp );
if(pp==0) return 0;
for( j=0; j<siz; ++j)
{pp[j]= (vettore_array*) malloc( sizeof(vettore_array) );
if(pp[j]==0)
{if(j!=0)
for( --j ; j!=0 ; --j)
free( (void*) pp[j] );
free((void*) pp[0]); free((void*) pp); return 0;
}
}
}
else { if(siz==m_m_m_) return 1;
else if(siz < m_m_m_) /* dovrebbe distruggere la
memoria eccessiva */
{ if(siz<=i_i_i_) return 1; /* la 1024ma volta che viene
chiamato free_m()*/
for(j=siz; j<m_m_m_; ++j) // v[0]...v[size]=size+1
free((void*) p_p_p_[j]);
pp=(vettore_array**) realloc(p_p_p_, (siz + 1) * sizeof
*pp );
if(pp==0) {printf("Fallimento realloc\n"); m_m_m_ =
siz; return 1;}
/* ritorna senza cambiare niente */
goto label;
}
pp= (vettore_array**) realloc( (void*) p_p_p_, (siz + 1) *
sizeof *pp);
if(pp==0) {printf("Fallimento realloc\n"); return 0;}
if( siz > i_i_i_)
{ for( j=i_i_i_; j<siz; ++j)
{pp[j]= (vettore_array*) malloc(
sizeof(vettore_array) );
if(pp[j]==0)
{if(j!=0)
for( --j ; j!=0 ; --j)
free( (void*) pp[j] );
free((void*) pp[0]); return 0;
}

}
}
}
label: ;
m_m_m_ = siz; p_p_p_=pp; return 1;
}

/* malloc_m: allocatore di memoria */
void* malloc_m(unsigned nbytes)
{Header *p, *prevp;
unsigned nunits, *k, *kk, led, size;
Header* morecore(unsigned);
unsigned verifica_all_m( void );
void stato_mem(void);
/*-------------------------------*/
if(libero_m_)
{
if(verifica_all_m()==0)
stato_mem();
}
if(i_i_i_>MEM_LIMIT || nbytes==0 ) return 0;
if(i_i_i_>=m_m_m_)
{if(mem_init( i_i_i_ + MAX_ARRAYS ) == 0) return 0;}
nunits = nbytes + sizeof(Header);
nunits = nunits/sizeof(Header) + (( nunits%sizeof(Header)
sizeof(unsigned) ) ? 1: 0) + 1;

if((prevp=freep)==NULL) /* non esiste la free list */
{ base.s.ptr=freep=prevp=&base; base.s.size=0; }
for(p=prevp->s.ptr; ; prevp=p, p=p->s.ptr)
{if(p->s.size>=nunits) /* spazio insufficiente */
{if(p->s.size==nunits) /* esattamente */
{
prevp->s.ptr = p->s.ptr;
}
else /* alloca la parte finale */
{
p->s.size -= nunits;
p += p->s.size;
p->s.size =nunits;
}
freep = prevp;
/****************** Blocco aggiunto ************/
size = nbytes;
led = (size % sizeof(unsigned)!=0) ? 1: 0;
k = (unsigned*)(p+1); kk=k; --k;
p_p_p_[i_i_i_]->meno = *k;
p_p_p_[i_i_i_]->piu = kk[size/sizeof(unsigned)+ led];
p_p_p_[i_i_i_]->size = size;
p_p_p_[i_i_i_++]->p = (void*)(p+1);
/***********************************************/
return (void*) (p+1);
}
if(p==freep) /* la free list e' terminata */
{++yuyuy; /* numero delle volte di mem.
richieste al sistema */
if((p=morecore(nunits)) == NULL)
return NULL; /* non c'e' piu' spazio */
}
}
}

/* Ritorna il numero degli elementi;
se il numero degli elementi e' 0 ritorna (unsigned) -1
se errori ritorna 0 */
unsigned verifica_all_m( void )
{unsigned j, *k, *kk, xk, xkk, led;
/*----------------*/
if( p_p_p_==0 || i_i_i_==0 ) return -1;
for(j=0 ; j < i_i_i_ ; ++j)
{k = (unsigned*) (p_p_p_[j]->p); kk=k; --k;
led = (p_p_p_[j]->size % sizeof(unsigned)!=0) ? 1: 0;
if( (xk=kk[p_p_p_[j]->size/sizeof(unsigned) + led]) !=
(xkk=p_p_p_[j]->piu) )
{

/* nota bene: n:v significa NUOVO VALORE : VECCHIO VALORE */

sprintf(memo_ , "verifica_all_mMEM_+ p=%5p size=%5u p[-1]=%5u
p[max]=%5u n:v=%5u:%5u",
p_p_p_[j]->p, p_p_p_[j]->size, p_p_p_[j]->meno,
xkk, xk, xkk);

if(n_i_>2) name_[ n_i_ - 2 ]='+';
return 0;
}
if( (xk=*k) != (xkk=p_p_p_[j]->meno) )
{ sprintf(memo_ , "verifica_all_mMEM_- p=%5p size=%5u
p[-1]=%5u p[max]=%5u n:v=%5u:%5u",
p_p_p_[j]->p, p_p_p_[j]->size, xkk,
p_p_p_[j]->piu, xk, xkk);
if(n_i_>2) name_[n_i_ - 2]='-';
return 0;
}
}
return i_i_i_;
}

void verifica_all( void )
{if(verifica_all_m( )==0)
{printf("Errore nella memoria\n");
printf("memo=%s name=%s\n", memo_, name_ );
}
}

/* ritorna 0 se il vettore fa parte della lista
se pointer==0 ritorna 1 se tutto e' cancellato
2 se tutto e' cancellato tranne il puntatore iniziale
3 altrimenti
*/
unsigned verifica_m( void* pointer, unsigned *jj)
{unsigned j, *k, *kk, xk, xkk, led;
/*----------------*/
if(jj!=0) *jj=0;
if(pointer==0)
{if( i_i_i_==0 && p_p_p_==0 ) return 1;
else if(i_i_i_==0) return 2;
else return 3;
}
if(p_p_p_==0 ) return 1;
for(j=0 ; j < i_i_i_ ; ++j)
if( p_p_p_[j]->p == pointer ) break;
if(j==i_i_i_ ) {printf("verifica_mMEM_0 %p indice=%u memo=%s
name=%s\n", pointer, i_i_i_, memo_, name_ );
if(n_i_>2) name_[n_i_ -2]='0'; return 7;
}
k = (unsigned*) pointer; kk=k; --k;
led = (p_p_p_[j]->size % sizeof(unsigned)!=0) ? 1: 0;
*jj=j;
if( (xk=kk[p_p_p_[j]->size/sizeof(unsigned) + led]) !=
(xkk=p_p_p_[j]->piu) )
{ printf("p=%p size=%u p[-1]=%u p[max]=%u ", pointer,
p_p_p_[j]->size, *k, xk);
printf("verifica_mMEM_+ n:v>%u:%u\n", xk, xkk);
if(n_i_>2) name_[ n_i_ - 2 ]='+';
return 8;
}
if( (xk=*k) != (xkk=p_p_p_[j]->meno) )
{ printf("p=%p size=%u p[-1]=%u p[max]=%u ", pointer,
p_p_p_[j]->size, xkk, p_p_p_[j]->piu);
printf("verifica_mMEM_- n:v>%u:%u\n", xk, xkk);
if(n_i_>2) name_[n_i_ - 2]='-';
return 9;
}
else return 0;
}

unsigned verifica_p_m( void* pointer)
{unsigned jj;
return verifica_m( pointer, &jj);
}

static void free_list_m(void)
{while( list_i_ !=0 )
{--list_i_; free(list_[list_i_]);}
free(list_); list_=0; list_m_=0; freep=NULL;
}

static void free_vettore_m(void)
{if(p_p_p_==0) { m_m_m_=0; i_i_i_=0; return;}
while( i_i_i_ !=0 )
{--i_i_i_; free((void*) p_p_p_[i_i_i_]); }
free((void*) p_p_p_);
p_p_p_=0; m_m_m_=0;
}
static void inserisci(void* ap, unsigned jk, unsigned j)
{Header *bp, *p;
static unsigned f_cont=0;
/*-------------------*/
if(jk==0) ++f_cont;
bp = (Header*)ap - 1; /* punta all'header del blocco */
for( p=freep; !(bp>p && bp < p->s.ptr); p=p->s.ptr )
if( p >= p->s.ptr && (bp>p || bp < p->s.ptr) )
break; /* il blocco liberato e'
ad un estremo della lista*/
if(jk) goto label;
/********************************************/
if(j != i_i_i_ - 1)
{
p_p_p_[j]->p = p_p_p_[i_i_i_ - 1]->p;
p_p_p_[j]->size = p_p_p_[i_i_i_ - 1]->size;
p_p_p_[j]->meno = p_p_p_[i_i_i_ - 1]->meno;
p_p_p_[j]->piu = p_p_p_[i_i_i_ - 1]->piu;
}
p_p_p_[--i_i_i_]->p =0; p_p_p_[i_i_i_]->size=0;
p_p_p_[i_i_i_]->meno=0; p_p_p_[i_i_i_]->piu =0;
if(m_m_m_>1000 && f_cont%1024==0)
mem_init(i_i_i_+64);
/***********************************************/
label:
if(bp+bp->s.size == p->s.ptr)/*lo unisce al blocco dopo*/
{bp->s.size += p->s.ptr->s.size;
bp->s.ptr = p->s.ptr->s.ptr;
}
else bp->s.ptr=p->s.ptr;

if(p+p->s.size == bp)/* lo unisce al blocco prima*/
{p->s.size += bp->s.size;
p->s.ptr = bp->s.ptr;
}
else p->s.ptr=bp;

freep = p;
}

void free_all_m(void) {free_vettore_m(); free_list_m();}

/*Non usare free_all_m() ma free_a_i_m se ci sono oggetti
allocati da costruttori e distruttori del c++
(gli oggetti fuori da una qualsiasi procedura finiscono quando si
chiude
l'ultima istruzione del main) */
void free_a_i_m(void)
{if(i_i_i_==0)
{free_vettore_m(); free_list_m(); printf("MEMORIA DINAMICA
LIBERATA\n"); }
}
#define NALLOC 1024 /* numero minimo di unita' richieste */

/* morecore: chiede al sistema memoria aggiuntiva */
static Header* morecore(unsigned nu)
{char *cp, **p;
Header *up;
unsigned len;
/*-----------------------*/
if(nu<NALLOC) nu=NALLOC;
cp = (char*) malloc(nu * sizeof(Header));
if( cp==0 ) /* non c'e' piu' spazio */
return NULL;

if(list_i_ <= list_m_ )
{len = (list_m_==0 ? 128: 2*list_m_);
p = (char**) realloc(list_, len * sizeof *p);
if(p==0)
{free(cp); return 0;}
list_ = p;
list_m_ =len;
}
list_[list_i_++]=cp;

up=(Header*) cp;
up->s.size=nu;
inserisci((void*)(up+1), 1, 0);
return freep;
}

/* se pointer!=0 ritorna la size del pointer
ritorna 0 se il pointer non c'e' */
unsigned get_size_m( void* pointer )
{unsigned j;
/*----------------*/
if(pointer==0 || p_p_p_==0) return 0;
for(j=0 ; j < i_i_i_ ; ++j)
if( p_p_p_[j]->p == pointer ) break;
if(j==i_i_i_ ) return 0;
return p_p_p_[j]->size;
}

void init_w(const char *nam)
{unsigned i, j;
/*---------------------*/
if(nam==0) return;
if( n_i_ > 2 )
name_[n_i_ - 1]='|';
if( n_i_ >= 1016 ) // 0..14 carattere 15='|'
n_i_=0;
for(i=n_i_, j=0; j<15 && nam[j]!=0; ++i, ++j)
name_[i]=nam[j];
for( ; j< 15; ++i, ++j)
name_[i]=' ';
name_[i] = '#';
n_i_ += 16;
}

void leggi_mem(void)
{Header *u, *v;
unsigned j;
for( u = freep; u!=0 ; )
{printf("|v=%u s=%u|", (unsigned)u / sizeof(Header), u->s.size );
if(u->s.ptr==freep) break;
v=u->s.ptr;
if((u + u->s.size) != v)
{j = (UNS)(v-u) - u->s.size;
if(j<123456)
printf("%u", j );
else printf("#");
}
u=v;
}
}
void stato_mem(void)
{unsigned j;
leggi_mem();
fflush(stdout);
printf("\nRAPPORTO MEMORIA DINAMICA. ");
printf("Memoria richiesta al sistema=%u volte. ", yuyuy);
j=verifica_all_m();
if(j!=0 && j!=-1) printf("%u vettori allocati con successo\n", j);
else {if(j==0) goto label;
printf("Tutto bene. ");
j=verifica_m(0, 0);
if(j==1) printf("Sia la base sia il contatore sono NULLI\n");
else if(j==2) printf("Il contatore e' nullo ma la base no\n");
else {label: ;
printf("Errore nella memoria\n");
printf("memo=%s name=%s\n", memo_, name_ );
free_vettore_m(); free_list_m();
exit(0);
}
}
}

void controlla_m(char* st)
{printf("!%s!", st);
fflush(stdout);
if(verifica_all_m()==0)
{if(st) printf("ERRORE!");
fflush(stdout);
stato_mem();
}
}
/* free: inserisce in free list il blocco ap */
void free_m(void* ap)
{ unsigned j;
/*-------------------*/
if(ap==0) return ;
if(libero_m_)
{
if(verifica_all_m()==0)
stato_mem();
}
if(verifica_m(ap, &j))
{ printf("free_m(): "); stato_mem();
free_vettore_m(); free_list_m();
exit(0);
}
inserisci(ap, 0, j);
}

void stampa_chiamate(void){printf("memo=%s name=%s\n", memo_, name_
);}

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif
// fine di extern C
/*************************CCCCCCC****************** ****************/
/* file.c che utilizza malloc_m()
c_compiler file.c mallocm.obj */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif
void* malloc_m(unsigned nbytes);
unsigned verifica_all_m( void );
unsigned verifica_m( void* pointer, unsigned *jj);
unsigned verifica_p_m( void* pointer);

void free_m(void* ap);
void free_all_m(void);
void free_a_i_m(void);
unsigned get_size_m( void* pointer );
void stato_mem(void);
void leggi_mem(void);
void controlla_m(char* st);
void verifica_all( void );
void init_w(const char *nam);
void stampa_chiamate(void);
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

extern int libero_m_ ;

void g(void)
{char *r;
/**********************/
if(libero_m_) init_w("g() ");
r=malloc_m(100*sizeof(*r));
r[-1]='8'; /* errore per r[-1] */
/* errore non liberato r */
// free_m(r);
/* errore se non uso free_m(r) ed stato_mem() in main mi dice
"RAPPORTO MEMORIA DINAMICA. Memoria richiesta al sistema=1 volte.
1 vettori allocati con successo "
significa che mi sono dimenticato di cancellare un vettore
*/
}

void f(void)
{char *p;
int i;
/*********************/
if(libero_m_) init_w("f() ");
p=malloc_m(100*sizeof(*p));
for(i=0; i<110; ++i) p[i]='0'; /* errore per i>=100 */
free_m(p); /* se libero_m_ = 1; identifica routine dell'errore */
/* se libero_m_ = 0; (default) identifica un errore */
g();
}
int main(void)
{// libero_m_ = 1; // scrive routines ove e' identificato l'errore
// se si identifica errore => "libero_m_ = 1;"
// nel codice normale ove non si identificano errori *non* si
// deve scrivere "libero_m_ = 1;"
if(libero_m_) init_w("main");

f();

stato_mem(); /* identifica eventuali errori e "momory leaks"*/
free_all_m(); /* si deve usare prima di uscire dal programma */
stato_mem(); /* se succede
"RAPPORTO MEMORIA DINAMICA. Memoria richiesta al sistema=1 volte.
Tutto bene. Sia
la base sia il contatore sono NULLI"
tutto sembra ok */
return 0;
}

Nov 15 '05 #1
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18 Replies


P: n/a
cs wrote:
This is the function malloc_m() that should be like malloc() but it
should find memory leak, and over bound writing in arrays.

How many errors do you see? ...


See...

http://groups-beta.google.com/group/...malloc+wrapper

--
Peter

Nov 15 '05 #2

P: n/a
In alt.lang.asm cs <n@ss.g> wrote:
How many errors do you see?


0) Overlong included text
1) Italian language code posted to English language newsgroups
2) No asm code posted to an asm newsgroup. ASM doesn't have
malloc(), and nor is it a syscall [but a libc fn]

-- Robert

Nov 15 '05 #3

P: n/a
In article <t1***************@newssvr12.news.prodigy.com>,
Robert Redelmeier <re****@ev1.net.invalid> wrote:
:In alt.lang.asm cs <n@ss.g> wrote:
:> How many errors do you see?

:1) Italian language code posted to English language newsgroups

Where??

comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are certainly predominately
English in their discussions, but they do not have charters
restricting discussions or variable names or comments to English.

If someone posts on a topic or in a language that relatively few
readers understand, then they are not going to receive as much
feedback as they might otherwise, but that is not an *error*.
It isn't even any more Undefined Behaviour (UB) than any other posting.
At most it is a Quality of Implementation matter.

--
"I want to make sure [a user] can't get through ... an online
experience without hitting a Microsoft ad"
-- Steve Ballmer [Microsoft Chief Executive]
Nov 15 '05 #4

P: n/a
In alt.lang.asm Walter Roberson <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> wrote:
:1) Italian language code posted to English language newsgroups
Where??
Comments and variable names.
At most it is a Quality of Implementation matter.


The error is in expecting much feedback.

-- Robert

Nov 15 '05 #5

P: n/a
cs wrote:
This is the function malloc_m() that should be like malloc() but it
should find memory leak, and over bound writing in arrays.
Don't cross-post, and especially when no assembly code is present in the
code. That's C with no relations with assembly.

Don't use italian language in your code (altrimenti pochi capiscono e
non ti risponderanno MAI), being that comments, variables or whatever.
/* uso: c_compiler malloc.c e usare malloc .obj */
This is compiler/platform dependent. Just provide code, a ``.obj'' is
not everywhere in the world.
/*
Declino ogni responsabilita' per qualsiasi danno
che potrebbe arrecare questo programma e ogni
garanzia che serva a qualche cosa; Il programma si
intende libero (free) per l'uso e per il
cambiamento.

*/
Better for you: GPL, BSD, MIT?
#define MEM_LIMIT 100000
#define MAX_ARRAYS 255
Where the hell did you get these limits? Just... guessing?
#define UNS unsigned
Useless but harmless.
static unsigned yuyuy=0;
typedef double Align; /* per allineare alla double */
?
union header { /* header del blocco */
struct {union header* ptr; /* blocco successivo in free list */
unsigned size; /* dimensione di questo blocco */
}s;
Align x; /* forza l'allineamento dei blocchi */
};
Why are you aligning at doubles?

<<Big SNIP>>

Can you use better names than p_p_p_ and so on?
static int mem_init(unsigned siz) [...]


Some pointers.

First, google for libraries, there are some.

Second, the source code contains some weird debug code, I suggest using
something like:

/* Uncomment the following line to use debugging info */
#define DEBUGGING_MALLOC
....

static blah()
{
...
#ifdef DEBUGGING_MALLOC
printf("Whatever %s %p %d ...
#endif
...
}

You have better code avoiding compilation of useless things when releasing.

Then... did you use valgrind or other memory leak tools for your code
safety?
Nov 15 '05 #6

P: n/a
In article <f_*****************@newssvr11.news.prodigy.com> ,
Robert Redelmeier <re****@ev1.net.invalid> wrote:
In alt.lang.asm Walter Roberson <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> wrote:
:1) Italian language code posted to English language newsgroups
Where??
Comments and variable names.
Comments and variable names are not "English language newsgroups".

comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are not "English language newsgroups" either,
merely newsgroups in which English is by far the most common language.

At most it is a Quality of Implementation matter.

The error is in expecting much feedback.


And you know the posters internal mental state at the time of
posting through what mechanism?

I didn't see anything in the original posting indicating that the
original poster expected more than one response.
--
Any sufficiently old bug becomes a feature.
Nov 15 '05 #7

P: n/a
cs
On Sat, 09 Jul 2005 12:01:48 -0500, Sensei <se******@tin.it> wrote:
cs wrote:
This is the function malloc_m() that should be like malloc() but it
should find memory leak, and over bound writing in arrays.
Don't cross-post, and especially when no assembly code is present in the
code. That's C with no relations with assembly.


i find this relation:
C routines that use "heap memory" and assembly routines that use "heap
memory" have the same problems: it is easy (for me at last) goes out
of arrays (in writing).
where for "heap memory" i mean the memory returned from malloc-like
functions.

I would say that this is not true for assembly routines that have
static memory: these memory problems seems find at once in assembly.
But if some assembly routine have some "heap" memory the problem
remain.

So a function like malloc_m that find *if* and *where* are these
errors (or most of them) is not only useful but *necessary*.
I am a very positive experience for use malloc_m with assembly code
called from c[++] code.

But it is possible i'm only a novice or i have get the "wrong way"
the "dark side of the languages" etc
and people as you or Sosman or Betov or Frank or others don't have
this out-of bounds array problems and have not to scan the pc memory
for this.
Don't use italian language in your code (altrimenti pochi capiscono e
non ti risponderanno MAI), being that comments, variables or whatever.


i'm lazy and i think that people understand the same. it is possible
that there is someone as me, who like to read something in a different
language.
Nov 15 '05 #8

P: n/a
"Walter Roberson" <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> posted:
comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are not
"English language newsgroups"


What's not English about "comp", "lang", "alt" and "asm"?

1) The newsgroup names are English.
2) They start out being hosted in a country where the national
language is English.
3) IF the Italians wanted to host a newsgroup and pay to put the
group upon English servers, that's their choice, but they'll more
than likely want to put them on Italian servers and own the
servers themselves and provide Italian newsgroup names.
4) It's polite to put the conversation in the "native language".
5) The newsgroups are pulled by secondary servers in different
countries. The "pulling servers" do NOT provide translation
services for their readers, which is 100% possible, but they
fail to provide the services.
6) Not only did the OP post C coding into a assembly language
group, but his comments were in Italian(?). Two strikes...
where's the third strike? Robert plays one-strike or two-strike
baseball, and doesn't provide the opportunity for the third-strike?
Sounds like a better game of baseball. Definitely would shorten
the game. "Arena" baseball anyone? <g>
7) Who cares enough to argue about it? Blah! LOL

In Italian, the newsgroup names might be called:

it.calc.ling.c
it.alt.ling.mac or it.alt.ling.calc or it.alt.ling.cerv or it.alt.ling.ec

alt.lang.asm
it = Italiano (Italian)
alt = alternativa (alternate)
ling = lingua (language)
mac = macchina (machine)
cerv = cervello (brain)
calc = calcolatore (computer)
ec = elaboratore centrale (mainframe)

comp.lang.c
calc = calcolatore (computer)
ling = lingua (language)
cod = codificatore (coder)

--
Jim Carlock
Please post replies to newsgroup.
Nov 15 '05 #9

P: n/a
In article <a3*********************@tornado.tampabay.rr.com >,
Jim Carlock <an*******@localhost.com> wrote:
"Walter Roberson" <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> posted:
comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are not
"English language newsgroups"
What's not English about "comp", "lang", "alt" and "asm"?
2) They start out being hosted in a country where the national
language is English.
Which country was that?

comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are both renames of older groups.

comp.lang.c as a name dates from The Big Renaming -- it was
one of the many news.* newsgroups before that. It immediately had
a large multinational following in its new name.

alt.lang.asm is a rename of alt.lang.ml and appears to have
happened within a matter of days of the creation of alt.lang.ml .
The very oldest messages in alt.lang.ml appear to have been lost.
One of the earliest posts that is there is from someone in Mexico;
the "national language" there isn't English.

The creator of alt.lang.asm appears to have been at Berkeley California,
so if you really wanted to stretch the point you could say that it
"started out" being hosted in the USA, but the newsgroup message
propogated within hours to other countries, so there is no significant
history of it being restricted to countries whose national language
was English.

3) IF the Italians wanted to host a newsgroup and pay to put the
group upon English servers, that's their choice, but they'll more
than likely want to put them on Italian servers and own the
servers themselves and provide Italian newsgroup names.
Is the implication that you "pay" to put some "English" newsgroup on
Italian servers? I don't think so.

4) It's polite to put the conversation in the "native language".
Perhaps -- but not doing so does not constitute an "error".

Emperically speaking, politeness is not a significant factor in the
choice of content posted to comp.lang.c -- and very very briefly
skimming the past postings of alt.lang.asm, it doesn't appear to
be a significant factor in alt.lang.asm either.

5) The newsgroups are pulled by secondary servers in different
countries. The "pulling servers" do NOT provide translation
services for their readers, which is 100% possible, but they
fail to provide the services.


So??? Do those secondary servers provide translation services of
the innumerable flame-fests and OT posts that waste bandwidth in
the newsgroups?
--
Oh, to be a Blobel!
Nov 15 '05 #10

P: n/a

"Walter Roberson" <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> wrote in message
news:da**********@canopus.cc.umanitoba.ca...
In article <f_*****************@newssvr11.news.prodigy.com> ,
Robert Redelmeier <re****@ev1.net.invalid> wrote:
In alt.lang.asm Walter Roberson <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> wrote:
:1) Italian language code posted to English language newsgroups
Where??
Comments and variable names.


Comments and variable names are not "English language newsgroups".

comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are not "English language newsgroups" either,
merely newsgroups in which English is by far the most common language.

At most it is a Quality of Implementation matter.

The error is in expecting much feedback.


And you know the posters internal mental state at the time of
posting through what mechanism?

I didn't see anything in the original posting indicating that the
original poster expected more than one response.
--
Any sufficiently old bug becomes a feature.


I smile at your close. It is certainly fun to fix a bug and find some
programmer depended on the bug for years.
Nov 15 '05 #11

P: n/a
cs wrote:
i find this relation:
I meant: there is no relation with YOUR code, which is pure C, with NO
assembly, so X-posting to ASM ng would be useless.
But it is possible i'm only a novice or i have get the "wrong way"
the "dark side of the languages" etc
and people as you or Sosman or Betov or Frank or others don't have
this out-of bounds array problems and have not to scan the pc memory
for this.
The problem still remains, writing out of bounds can be always possible.
i'm lazy and i think that people understand the same. it is possible
that there is someone as me, who like to read something in a different
language.


Not in comp.* --- I suggest to be less lazy, especially dealing with
international ngs, which use english by default. It's this way, and you
won't change it.
Nov 15 '05 #12

P: n/a
In alt.lang.asm cs <n@ss.g> wrote:
C routines that use "heap memory" and assembly routines
that use "heap memory" have the same problems: it is easy
(for me at last) goes out of arrays (in writing). where for
"heap memory" i mean the memory returned from malloc-like
functions.


Ah, but there are _no_ malloc()-like functions in ASM!
The programmer has to write their own when they want to
use this feature. Those custom routines tend to be easier
to write because the pgmr knows what they expect it to do,
and don't need to write it to do everything.

If you want to understand malloc() routines, look at how
other languages (pascal?) do it.

Personally, I love segfaults (the error raised when a process
writes on memory it doesn't own -- Sig11). These point out
bug and are _much_ easier to find that trampled memory.
I don't know if the Linux or BSD mmap() syscall permits
mapping isolated pages to give some buffer over-run protection.

-- Robert

Nov 15 '05 #13

P: n/a

"Robert Redelmeier" <re****@ev1.net.invalid> wrote in message
news:BS*************@newssvr30.news.prodigy.com...


Ah, but there are _no_ malloc()-like functions in ASM!
The programmer has to write their own when they want to
use this feature.
The first sentence and the second sentence are contradictory, of course.

And what's wrong with a programmer using a function that someone else wrote?
Lots of malloc routines *do* exist for assembly language programmers. I've
seen 'em for MASM, HLA, TASM, and just about any other assembler that can
link in an OBJ file.
Those custom routines tend to be easier
to write because the pgmr knows what they expect it to do,
and don't need to write it to do everything.
OTOH, the programmer also has to *know* how to write a good malloc routine.
And contrary to the opinion of many assembly language programmers, getting
it right and keeping performance high, is a challenging task. There have
probably been hundreds of papers published on the subject of memory
allocation, garbage collection, and similar subjects over the past 50 years.

If you want to understand malloc() routines, look at how
other languages (pascal?) do it.
Or read some of those afore-mentioned papers. Don't get the impression that
a particular language's memory allocation routine has "gotten it right",
either. Many C libraries, for example, are known to have pretty bad malloc
routines.

Personally, I love segfaults (the error raised when a process
writes on memory it doesn't own -- Sig11). These point out
bug and are _much_ easier to find that trampled memory.
I don't know if the Linux or BSD mmap() syscall permits
mapping isolated pages to give some buffer over-run protection.


Yes, they do. Though you burn up a whole page to achieve this.
This is one of the advantages of true segmentation vs. flat memory models.
Handling "out of range" errors is much easier in a *true* segmented system
(and 16-bit x86 is *not* true segmentation; to my knowledge, no popular OS
supports 32-bit segmentation).
Cheers,
Randy Hyde
Nov 15 '05 #14

P: n/a
On Sun, 10 Jul 2005 04:11:06 GMT, in comp.lang.c , cs <n@ss.g> wrote:
On Sat, 09 Jul 2005 12:01:48 -0500, Sensei <se******@tin.it> wrote:
cs wrote:
This is the function malloc_m() that should be like malloc() but it
should find memory leak, and over bound writing in arrays.


Don't cross-post, and especially when no assembly code is present in the
code. That's C with no relations with assembly.


i find this relation:
C routines that use "heap memory" and assembly routines that use "heap
memory" have the same problems:


As quite probably do pascal, fortran, forth and bloody haskell, if any
of those also use heaps. Do you think the solution would be common
too?
Be sensible. C is not assembler.

--
Mark McIntyre
CLC FAQ <http://www.eskimo.com/~scs/C-faq/top.html>
CLC readme: <http://www.ungerhu.com/jxh/clc.welcome.txt>

----== Posted via Newsfeeds.Com - Unlimited-Uncensored-Secure Usenet News==----
http://www.newsfeeds.com The #1 Newsgroup Service in the World! 120,000+ Newsgroups
----= East and West-Coast Server Farms - Total Privacy via Encryption =----
Nov 15 '05 #15

P: n/a
In alt.lang.asm Randall Hyde <ra*******@earthlink.net> wrote:
"Robert Redelmeier" <re****@ev1.net.invalid> wrote in message
Ah, but there are _no_ malloc()-like functions in ASM!
The programmer has to write their own when they want to
use this feature.
The first sentence and the second sentence are contradictory, of course.


Well yes. I obviously omitted the word "standard" in the
first sentence. Mea culpa. Mea culpa. Mea maxima culpa!
And what's wrong with a programmer using a function that
someone else wrote? Lots of malloc routines *do* exist for
Sure. But that's not the bare-metal asm way :)

And it isn't as if there's some standard library. 'Course you
can use anything you like, but then you'd better look into
it and see if it really meets your needs. Not like using
the standard libraries that come with compiler languages.
OTOH, the programmer also has to *know* how to write a
good malloc routine.
Only if s/he's going to need or use such a beast.
A FORTRAN programmer won't.
And contrary to the opinion of many assembly language
programmers, getting it right and keeping performance high,
is a challenging task. There have probably been hundreds of
papers published on the subject of memory allocation, garbage
collection, and similar subjects over the past 50 years.
Entirely true. Would you have any good overview URLs
for our OP?

I think it might be good to examine real-world usage
of malloc()'d objects, particularly their persistance.
Yes, they do. Though you burn up a whole page to achieve
Burn one 4 KB page as VM, two as address space including the
guard page. I don't much mind. IMHO, malloc() is for fairly
large variable-length (need guardpage!) objects that have
limited duration. Smalls should be stack locals, and longer
duration should be statics. Fix length should be statics,
potentially a series protected by flags/LRU. KISS.
This is one of the advantages of true segmentation vs. flat
memory models. Handling "out of range" errors is much
easier in a *true* segmented system (and 16-bit x86 is *not*


Understood. But this saves memory at the cost of segment
register loads. You might as well use Pascal-style BOUND
instructions. Cycles are cheap.

-- Robert

Nov 15 '05 #16

P: n/a
"Randall Hyde" <ra*******@earthlink.net> écrivait news:uffAe.6073$8f7.2914
@newsread1.news.pas.earthlink.net:
what's wrong with a programmer using a function that someone else wrote?

Nothing... unless it would have been written by... you.

:))
Betov.

< http://rosasm.org >

Nov 15 '05 #17

P: n/a
"Jim Carlock" <an*******@localhost.com> wrote:
"Walter Roberson" <ro******@ibd.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca> posted:
comp.lang.c and alt.lang.asm are not
"English language newsgroups"
What's not English about "comp", "lang", "alt" and "asm"?

1) The newsgroup names are English.
2) They start out being hosted in a country where the national
language is English.


Newsgroups are not "hosted". That is not how Usenet works.
3) IF the Italians wanted to host a newsgroup and pay to put the
group upon English servers,
That is not how Usenet works, either.

My news server is Dutch, and it carries groups from it, de, fr, hk and
japan.
5) The newsgroups are pulled by secondary servers in different
countries. The "pulling servers" do NOT provide translation
services for their readers, which is 100% possible,


Bull.

However...

1. The default language on any newsgroup in the Big <whatever the number
is today> is English.

That is the only objection that needed to be made.

Richard
Nov 15 '05 #18

P: n/a
cs
On Sat, 09 Jul 2005 07:19:09 GMT, cs <n@ss.g> wrote:
This is the function malloc_m() that should be like malloc() but it
should find memory leak, and over bound writing in arrays.

How many errors do you see?
Thank you
******************************************** unsigned verifica_m( void* pointer, unsigned *jj)
{unsigned j, *k, *kk, xk, xkk, led;
/*----------------*/
if(jj!=0) *jj=0;
if(pointer==0)
{if( i_i_i_==0 && p_p_p_==0 ) return 1;
else if(i_i_i_==0) return 2;
else return 3;
}
if(p_p_p_==0 ) return 1;
for(j=0 ; j < i_i_i_ ; ++j)
if( p_p_p_[j]->p == pointer ) break;
for(j=i_i_i_-1 ; ; --j )
{if( p_p_p_[j]->p == pointer ) break;
if(j==0) {j=i_i_i_; break;}
}

because it seems to me that
{type a=malloc_m(123), b=malloc_m(123);
operations;
free_m(b); free_m(a);
}
is very common (functions etc)
and this mean for free one pointer in the list of pointer it is only
O(1)
if(j==i_i_i_ ) {printf("verifica_mMEM_0 %p indice=%u memo=%s
name=%s\n", pointer, i_i_i_, memo_, name_ );
if(n_i_>2) name_[n_i_ -2]='0'; return 7;
} [...]static void inserisci(void* ap, unsigned jk, unsigned j)
{Header *bp, *p;
static unsigned f_cont=0;
/*-------------------*/
if(jk==0) ++f_cont;
bp = (Header*)ap - 1; /* punta all'header del blocco */
for( p=freep; !(bp>p && bp < p->s.ptr); p=p->s.ptr )
if( p >= p->s.ptr && (bp>p || bp < p->s.ptr) )
break; /* il blocco liberato e'
ad un estremo della lista*/


i don't know here if it is better to begin to end and to go backwards
(like above here)

something like

typedef double Align; /* per allineare alla double */

union header { /* header del blocco */
struct {union header* ptr; /* blocco successivo in free list */
union header* ptb; /* blocco precedente in free list */
unsigned size; /* dimensione di questo blocco */
}s;
Align x; /* forza l'allineamento dei blocchi */
};

typedef union header Header;
static Header base; /* lista vuota per iniziare */
static Header *freep = NULL; /* inizio della free list */
static Header *the_latest = NULL;

and to go from the_latest or from freep pointer backwards in the list
Nov 15 '05 #19

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