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How can I embed the *regex* engine into C program?

P: n/a
Is there relative source or document for this purpose?
I've searched the index of "Mastering Regular Expression", but cannot
get the useful information for C.
Thanks in advanced.

--
Learning is to improve, but not to prove.

Nov 13 '05 #1
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7 Replies


P: n/a

"alphatan" <DE***************@263.net> wrote in message
news:bp**********@news.yaako.com...
Is there relative source or document for this purpose?
I've searched the index of "Mastering Regular Expression", but cannot
get the useful information for C.
Thanks in advanced.


The Digital Mars C++ compiler comes with a regex engine
www.digitalmars.com/rtl/regexp.html

-Walter
www.digitalmars.com free C/C++/D compilers
Nov 13 '05 #2

P: n/a
Thanks. But I am only interested in *C*. And I pay more attention to
binary size and it's running speed than to the grammar's completion---It
means that, I just want to use part of it, as little as possible, to
deal with strings.
Then, in my bloomed memory, I could remember that, the programmer could
write something their self with complier indepent to build their regex
rules(just some, useful but not complete). But I can not remember the
steps and requirement.
Thanks again, I've read the page. At least, I could use it as the last
choice.

Walter wrote:


The Digital Mars C++ compiler comes with a regex engine
www.digitalmars.com/rtl/regexp.html

-Walter
www.digitalmars.com free C/C++/D compilers


--
Learning is to improve, but not to prove.

Nov 13 '05 #3

P: n/a
alphatan wrote:
Thanks. But I am only interested in *C*. And I pay more attention to
binary size and it's running speed than to the grammar's completion---It
means that, I just want to use part of it, as little as possible, to
deal with strings.
Then, in my bloomed memory, I could remember that, the programmer could
write something their self with complier indepent to build their regex
rules(just some, useful but not complete). But I can not remember the
steps and requirement.
Thanks again, I've read the page. At least, I could use it as the last
choice.

Walter wrote:


The Digital Mars C++ compiler comes with a regex engine
www.digitalmars.com/rtl/regexp.html

-Walter
www.digitalmars.com free C/C++/D compilers

Isn't there a regex.h header file, as a part of the standard library?

jeff@andromeda% uname -a
FreeBSD andromeda 4.7-RELEASE FreeBSD 4.7-RELEASE #0: Wed Dec 4 21:21:59 MST
2002 ro**@zeus.serverextreme.com:/usr/src/sys/compile/IPSECKERNEL i386
jeff@andromeda% man regex
REGEX(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual REGEX(3)

NAME
regcomp, regexec, regerror, regfree - regular-expression library

LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <regex.h>

int
regcomp(regex_t *preg, const char *pattern, int cflags);

int
regexec(const regex_t *preg, const char *string, size_t nmatch,
regmatch_t pmatch[], int eflags);

size_t
regerror(int errcode, const regex_t *preg, char *errbuf,
size_t errbuf_size);

void
regfree(regex_t *preg);

DESCRIPTION
These routines implement IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') regular expres-
sions (``RE''s); see re_format(7). Regcomp() compiles an RE written as a
string into an internal form, regexec() matches that internal form
against a string and reports results, regerror() transforms error codes
from either into human-readable messages, and regfree() frees any dynami-
cally-allocated storage used by the internal form of an RE.

The header <regex.h> declares two structure types, regex_t and
regmatch_t, the former for compiled internal forms and the latter for
match reporting. It also declares the four functions, a type regoff_t,
and a number of constants with names starting with ``REG_''.

Regcomp() compiles the regular expression contained in the pattern
string, subject to the flags in cflags, and places the results in the
regex_t structure pointed to by preg. Cflags is the bitwise OR of zero
or more of the following flags:

REG_EXTENDED Compile modern (``extended'') REs, rather than the obsolete
(``basic'') REs that are the default.

REG_BASIC This is a synonym for 0, provided as a counterpart to
REG_EXTENDED to improve readability.

REG_NOSPEC Compile with recognition of all special characters turned
off. All characters are thus considered ordinary, so the
``RE'' is a literal string. This is an extension, compati-
ble with but not specified by IEEE Std 1003.2
(``POSIX.2''), and should be used with caution in software
intended to be portable to other systems. REG_EXTENDED and
REG_NOSPEC may not be used in the same call to regcomp().

REG_ICASE Compile for matching that ignores upper/lower case distinc-
tions. See re_format(7).

REG_NOSUB Compile for matching that need only report success or fail-
ure, not what was matched.

REG_NEWLINE Compile for newline-sensitive matching. By default, new-
line is a completely ordinary character with no special
meaning in either REs or strings. With this flag, `[^'
bracket expressions and `.' never match newline, a `^'
anchor matches the null string after any newline in the
string in addition to its normal function, and the `$'
anchor matches the null string before any newline in the
string in addition to its normal function.

REG_PEND The regular expression ends, not at the first NUL, but just
before the character pointed to by the re_endp member of
the structure pointed to by preg. The re_endp member is of
type const char *. This flag permits inclusion of NULs in
the RE; they are considered ordinary characters. This is
an extension, compatible with but not specified by IEEE Std
1003.2 (``POSIX.2''), and should be used with caution in
software intended to be portable to other systems.

When successful, regcomp() returns 0 and fills in the structure pointed
to by preg. One member of that structure (other than re_endp) is publi-
cized: re_nsub, of type size_t, contains the number of parenthesized
subexpressions within the RE (except that the value of this member is
undefined if the REG_NOSUB flag was used). If regcomp() fails, it
returns a non-zero error code; see DIAGNOSTICS.

Regexec() matches the compiled RE pointed to by preg against the string,
subject to the flags in eflags, and reports results using nmatch, pmatch,
and the returned value. The RE must have been compiled by a previous
invocation of regcomp(). The compiled form is not altered during execu-
tion of regexec(), so a single compiled RE can be used simultaneously by
multiple threads.

By default, the NUL-terminated string pointed to by string is considered
to be the text of an entire line, minus any terminating newline. The
eflags argument is the bitwise OR of zero or more of the following flags:

REG_NOTBOL The first character of the string is not the beginning of a
line, so the `^' anchor should not match before it. This
does not affect the behavior of newlines under REG_NEWLINE.

REG_NOTEOL The NUL terminating the string does not end a line, so the
`$' anchor should not match before it. This does not
affect the behavior of newlines under REG_NEWLINE.

REG_STARTEND The string is considered to start at string +
pmatch[0].rm_so and to have a terminating NUL located at
string + pmatch[0].rm_eo (there need not actually be a NUL
at that location), regardless of the value of nmatch. See
below for the definition of pmatch and nmatch. This is an
extension, compatible with but not specified by IEEE Std
1003.2 (``POSIX.2''), and should be used with caution in
software intended to be portable to other systems. Note
that a non-zero rm_so does not imply REG_NOTBOL;
REG_STARTEND affects only the location of the string, not
how it is matched.

See re_format(7) for a discussion of what is matched in situations where
an RE or a portion thereof could match any of several substrings of
string.

Normally, regexec() returns 0 for success and the non-zero code
REG_NOMATCH for failure. Other non-zero error codes may be returned in
exceptional situations; see DIAGNOSTICS.

If REG_NOSUB was specified in the compilation of the RE, or if nmatch is
0, regexec() ignores the pmatch argument (but see below for the case
where REG_STARTEND is specified). Otherwise, pmatch points to an array
of nmatch structures of type regmatch_t. Such a structure has at least
the members rm_so and rm_eo, both of type regoff_t (a signed arithmetic
type at least as large as an off_t and a ssize_t), containing respec-
tively the offset of the first character of a substring and the offset of
the first character after the end of the substring. Offsets are measured
from the beginning of the string argument given to regexec(). An empty
substring is denoted by equal offsets, both indicating the character fol-
lowing the empty substring.

The 0th member of the pmatch array is filled in to indicate what sub-
string of string was matched by th entire RE. Remaining members report
what substring was matched by parenthesized subexpressions within the RE;
member i reports subexpression i, with subexpressions counted (starting
at 1) by the order of their opening parentheses in the RE, left to right.
Unused entries in the array (corresponding either to subexpressions that
did not participate in the match at all, or to subexpressions that do not
exist in the RE (that is, i > preg->re_nsub)) have both rm_so and rm_eo
set to -1. If a subexpression participated in the match several times,
the reported substring is the last one it matched. (Note, as an example
in particular, that when the RE `(b*)+' matches `bbb', the parenthesized
subexpression matches each of the three `b's and then an infinite number
of empty strings following the last `b', so the reported substring is one
of the empties.)

If REG_STARTEND is specified, pmatch must point to at least one
regmatch_t (even if nmatch is 0 or REG_NOSUB was specified), to hold the
input offsets for REG_STARTEND. Use for output is still entirely con-
trolled by nmatch; if nmatch is 0 or REG_NOSUB was specified, the value
of pmatch[0] will not be changed by a successful regexec().

Regerror() maps a non-zero errcode from either regcomp() or regexec() to
a human-readable, printable message. If preg is non-NULL, the error code
should have arisen from use of the regex_t pointed to by preg, and if the
error code came from regcomp(), it should have been the result from the
most recent regcomp() using that regex_t. (Regerror() may be able to
supply a more detailed message using information from the regex_t.)
Regerror() places the NUL-terminated message into the buffer pointed to
by errbuf, limiting the length (including the NUL) to at most errbuf_size
bytes. If the whole message won't fit, as much of it as will fit before
the terminating NUL is supplied. In any case, the returned value is the
size of buffer needed to hold the whole message (including terminating
NUL). If errbuf_size is 0, errbuf is ignored but the return value is
still correct.

If the errcode given to regerror() is first ORed with REG_ITOA, the
``message'' that results is the printable name of the error code, e.g.
``REG_NOMATCH'', rather than an explanation thereof. If errcode is
REG_ATOI, then preg shall be non-NULL and the re_endp member of the
structure it points to must point to the printable name of an error code;
in this case, the result in errbuf is the decimal digits of the numeric
value of the error code (0 if the name is not recognized). REG_ITOA and
REG_ATOI are intended primarily as debugging facilities; they are exten-
sions, compatible with but not specified by IEEE Std 1003.2
(``POSIX.2''), and should be used with caution in software intended to be
portable to other systems. Be warned also that they are considered
experimental and changes are possible.

Regfree() frees any dynamically-allocated storage associated with the
compiled RE pointed to by preg. The remaining regex_t is no longer a
valid compiled RE and the effect of supplying it to regexec() or
regerror() is undefined.

None of these functions references global variables except for tables of
constants; all are safe for use from multiple threads if the arguments
are safe.

IMPLEMENTATION CHOICES
There are a number of decisions that IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') leaves
up to the implementor, either by explicitly saying ``undefined'' or by
virtue of them being forbidden by the RE grammar. This implementation
treats them as follows.

See re_format(7) for a discussion of the definition of case-independent
matching.

There is no particular limit on the length of REs, except insofar as mem-
ory is limited. Memory usage is approximately linear in RE size, and
largely insensitive to RE complexity, except for bounded repetitions.
See BUGS for one short RE using them that will run almost any system out
of memory.

A backslashed character other than one specifically given a magic meaning
by IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') (such magic meanings occur only in obso-
lete [``basic''] REs) is taken as an ordinary character.

Any unmatched `[' is a REG_EBRACK error.

Equivalence classes cannot begin or end bracket-expression ranges. The
endpoint of one range cannot begin another.

RE_DUP_MAX, the limit on repetition counts in bounded repetitions, is
255.

A repetition operator (`?', `*', `+', or bounds) cannot follow another
repetition operator. A repetition operator cannot begin an expression or
subexpression or follow `^' or `|'.

`|' cannot appear first or last in a (sub)expression or after another
`|', i.e. an operand of `|' cannot be an empty subexpression. An empty
parenthesized subexpression, `()', is legal and matches an empty
(sub)string. An empty string is not a legal RE.

A `{' followed by a digit is considered the beginning of bounds for a
bounded repetition, which must then follow the syntax for bounds. A `{'
not followed by a digit is considered an ordinary character.

`^' and `$' beginning and ending subexpressions in obsolete (``basic'')
REs are anchors, not ordinary characters.

SEE ALSO
grep(1), re_format(7)

IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''), sections 2.8 (Regular Expression Notation)
and B.5 (C Binding for Regular Expression Matching).

DIAGNOSTICS
Non-zero error codes from regcomp() and regexec() include the following:

REG_NOMATCH regexec() failed to match
REG_BADPAT invalid regular expression
REG_ECOLLATE invalid collating element
REG_ECTYPE invalid character class
REG_EESCAPE `\' applied to unescapable character
REG_ESUBREG invalid backreference number
REG_EBRACK brackets `[ ]' not balanced
REG_EPAREN parentheses `( )' not balanced
REG_EBRACE braces `{ }' not balanced
REG_BADBR invalid repetition count(s) in `{ }'
REG_ERANGE invalid character range in `[ ]'
REG_ESPACE ran out of memory
REG_BADRPT `?', `*', or `+' operand invalid
REG_EMPTY empty (sub)expression
REG_ASSERT can't happen - you found a bug
REG_INVARG invalid argument, e.g. negative-length string

HISTORY
Originally written by Henry Spencer. Altered for inclusion in the 4.4BSD
distribution.

BUGS
This is an alpha release with known defects. Please report problems.

The back-reference code is subtle and doubts linger about its correctness
in complex cases.

Regexec() performance is poor. This will improve with later releases.
Nmatch exceeding 0 is expensive; nmatch exceeding 1 is worse. Regexec()
is largely insensitive to RE complexity except that back references are
massively expensive. RE length does matter; in particular, there is a
strong speed bonus for keeping RE length under about 30 characters, with
most special characters counting roughly double.

Regcomp() implements bounded repetitions by macro expansion, which is
costly in time and space if counts are large or bounded repetitions are
nested. An RE like, say, `((((a{1,100}){1,100}){1,100}){1,100}){1,100}'
will (eventually) run almost any existing machine out of swap space.

There are suspected problems with response to obscure error conditions.
Notably, certain kinds of internal overflow, produced only by truly enor-
mous REs or by multiply nested bounded repetitions, are probably not han-
dled well.

Due to a mistake in IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''), things like `a)b' are
legal REs because `)' is a special character only in the presence of a
previous unmatched `('. This can't be fixed until the spec is fixed.

The standard's definition of back references is vague. For example, does
`a\(\(b\)*\2\)*d' match `abbbd'? Until the standard is clarified, behav-
ior in such cases should not be relied on.

The implementation of word-boundary matching is a bit of a kludge, and
bugs may lurk in combinations of word-boundary matching and anchoring.

FreeBSD 4.7 March 20, 1994 FreeBSD 4.7

Nov 13 '05 #4

P: n/a
On Tue, 18 Nov 2003 21:43:17 -0700, Jeff Rodriguez
<ne********@gurugeek.EXAMPLENOSPAM.com> wrote in comp.lang.c:
alphatan wrote:
Thanks. But I am only interested in *C*. And I pay more attention to
binary size and it's running speed than to the grammar's completion---It
means that, I just want to use part of it, as little as possible, to
deal with strings.
Then, in my bloomed memory, I could remember that, the programmer could
write something their self with complier indepent to build their regex
rules(just some, useful but not complete). But I can not remember the
steps and requirement.
Thanks again, I've read the page. At least, I could use it as the last
choice.

Walter wrote:


The Digital Mars C++ compiler comes with a regex engine
www.digitalmars.com/rtl/regexp.html

-Walter
www.digitalmars.com free C/C++/D compilers

Isn't there a regex.h header file, as a part of the standard library?


No.
jeff@andromeda% uname -a
FreeBSD andromeda 4.7-RELEASE FreeBSD 4.7-RELEASE #0: Wed Dec 4 21:21:59 MST
2002 ro**@zeus.serverextreme.com:/usr/src/sys/compile/IPSECKERNEL i386
jeff@andromeda% man regex
REGEX(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual REGEX(3)

NAME
regcomp, regexec, regerror, regfree - regular-expression library

LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)
They lie, or they use the term "standard" in a way that has nothing to
do with ANSI/ISO/IEC, which is what the C standard means in this
group.
SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <regex.h>


No standard C header requires the inclusion of sys/types.h. It
couldn't, because sys/types.h is not a standard C header. In fact,
there is no standard C header with a path as part of its name.

--
Jack Klein
Home: http://JK-Technology.Com
FAQs for
comp.lang.c http://www.eskimo.com/~scs/C-faq/top.html
comp.lang.c++ http://www.parashift.com/c++-faq-lite/
alt.comp.lang.learn.c-c++ ftp://snurse-l.org/pub/acllc-c++/faq
Nov 13 '05 #5

P: n/a
"Jeff Rodriguez" <ne********@gurugeek.EXAMPLENOSPAM.com> wrote in message
news:bxCub.24402$Ro5.18534@fed1read07...
Isn't there a regex.h header file, as a part of the standard library?


No there is not.

jeff@andromeda% uname -a
FreeBSD andromeda 4.7-RELEASE FreeBSD 4.7-RELEASE #0: Wed Dec 4 21:21:59 MST 2002 ro**@zeus.serverextreme.com:/usr/src/sys/compile/IPSECKERNEL i386 jeff@andromeda% man regex
REGEX(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual REGEX(3)
NAME
regcomp, regexec, regerror, regfree - regular-expression library

LIBRARY
Standard C Library (libc, -lc)


This is at best a misleading remark.

-Mike
Nov 13 '05 #6

P: n/a
Thanks all the same. I know this header(just know).
And, which information I exactly want to receive is *how to use this
header and what should I do in my file*. In fact, I've not any idea with
this work.
Maybe a detailed introduction for this purpose of a book? a website?
would be highly apprciated. Not expert mode but for a newbie.
P.S. I've googled but failed---Cannot get the keyword:( .
Thanks.

Jeff Rodriguez wrote:
Isn't there a regex.h header file, as a part of the standard library?

jeff@andromeda% uname -a
FreeBSD andromeda 4.7-RELEASE FreeBSD 4.7-RELEASE #0: Wed Dec 4
21:21:59 MST 2002
ro**@zeus.serverextreme.com:/usr/src/sys/compile/IPSECKERNEL i386
jeff@andromeda% man regex
REGEX(3) FreeBSD Library Functions Manual
REGEX(3)

--
Learning is to improve, but not to prove.

Nov 13 '05 #7

P: n/a

"alphatan" <DE***************@263.net> wrote in message
news:bp**********@news.yaako.com...
Thanks all the same. I know this header(just know).
How do you know it? Where do you know it?
And, which information I exactly want to receive is *how to use this
header
That information should be available from whomever
supplies that header.
and what should I do in my file*.
Find out from the supplier of the header.
In fact, I've not any idea with
this work.
Read The Directions. :-)
Maybe a detailed introduction for this purpose of a book? a website?
Perhaps. But it would have to be a book or site about a
specific implementation of such a header. It's name is
not enough, there could easily be several versions of a header
with that same name which don't work the same way. You'll
also need the specific library for which the header was
written.

would be highly apprciated. Not expert mode but for a newbie.
P.S. I've googled but failed---Cannot get the keyword:( .


Find a specific 'regex' implementation, and download its
files and documentation.

E.g. google for "regex library Windows", substituting that
last word for the platform you're interested in.'

-Mike
Nov 13 '05 #8

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