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Need help understanding program control/flow.

Hi all! Newbie here.

Below is an example from Teach Yourself C in 21 Days. My apologies
if it is a bit long.

What I don't understand is how the "get_data" function can call the
"continue_funct ion", and if NO is returned to "get_data", display_report
executes and the program ends? Basically I am having trouble understanding
the program flow within the "if" loop in the "main" function.

The "if" loops only initiates if cont=YES, so what happens if a function
in the loop(in this case get_data) gets cont=NO? Does this really mean
that if "something" within an "if" loop doesn't meet the condition of the
loop,
the result is that the next statement below the "something" gets executed
and the the "if" loop is exited?

Hope I made myself clear.

Thanks in advance!

=============== =============== =============== =============== =============== ====
#include <stdio.h>

#define MAX 100
#define YES 1
#define NO 0

/*--------------------*/
/* variables */
/*--------------------*/

long income[MAX]; /* to hold incomes */
int month[MAX], day[MAX], year[MAX]; /* to hold birthdays */
int x, y, ctr; /* For counters */
int cont; /* For program control */
long month_total, grand_total; /* For totals */

/*--------------------*/
/* function prototypes*/
/*--------------------*/

int main(void);
int display_instruc tions(void);
void get_data(void);
void display_report( void);
int continue_functi on(void);

/*--------------------*/
/* start of program */
/*--------------------*/

int main(void)
{
cont = display_instruc tions();

if ( cont == YES ) /* <============== =============== === LOOK HERE!
*/
{
get_data();
display_report( );
}
else
printf( "\nProgram Aborted by User!\n\n");

return 0;
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: display_instruc tions() *
* Purpose: This function displays information on how to *
* use this program and asks the user to enter 0 *
* to quit, or 1 to continue. *
* Returns: NO - if user enters 0 *
* YES - if user enters any number other than 0 *
*-----------------------------------------------------------*/
int display_instruc tions( void )
{
printf("\n\n");
printf("\nThis program enables you to enter up to 99 people\'s ");
printf("\nincom es and birthdays. It then prints the incomes by");
printf("\nmonth along with the overall income and overall average.");
printf("\n");

cont = continue_functi on();
return( cont );
}
/*-------------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: get_data() *
* Purpose: This function gets the data from the user. It *
* continues to get data until either 100 people are *
* entered, or until the user enters 0 for the month.*
* Returns: nothing *
* Notes: This allows 0/0/0 to be entered for birthdays in *
* case the user is unsure. It also allows for 31 *
* days in each month. *
*-------------------------------------------------------------*/

void get_data(void)
{
for ( cont = YES, ctr = 0; ctr < MAX && cont == YES; ctr++ )
{
printf("\nEnter information for Person %d.", ctr+1 );
printf("\n\tEnt er Birthday:");

do
{
printf("\n\tMon th (0 - 12): ");
scanf("%d", &month[ctr]);
}while (month[ctr] < 0 || month[ctr] > 12 );

do
{
printf("\n\tDay (0 - 31): ");
scanf("%d", &day[ctr]);
}while ( day[ctr] < 0 || day[ctr] > 31 );

do
{
printf("\n\tYea r (0 - 2002): ");
scanf("%d", &year[ctr]);
}while ( year[ctr] < 0 || year[ctr] > 2002 );

printf("\nEnter Yearly Income (whole dollars): ");
scanf("%ld", &income[ctr]);

cont = continue_functi on(); /*
<============== =============== ======== LOOK HERE! */
}
/* ctr equals the number of people that were entered. */
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: display_report( ) *
* Purpose: This function displays a report to the screen *
* Returns: nothing *
* Notes: More information could be printed. *
*----------------------------------------------------------*/

void display_report( )
{
grand_total = 0;
printf("\n\n\n" ); /* skip a few lines */
printf("\n SALARY SUMMARY");
printf("\n ==============" );

for( x = 0; x <= 12; x++ ) /* for each month, including 0*/
{
month_total = 0;
for( y = 0; y < ctr; y++ )
{
if( month[y] == x )
month_total += income[y];
}
printf("\nTotal for month %d is %ld", x, month_total);
grand_total += month_total;
}
printf("\n\nRep ort totals:");
printf("\nTotal Income is %ld", grand_total);
printf("\nAvera ge Income is %ld", grand_total/ctr );

printf("\n\n* * * End of Report * * *\n");
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: continue_functi on() *
* Purpose: This function asks the user if they wish to continue.*
* Returns: YES - if user wishes to continue *
* NO - if user wishes to quit *
*----------------------------------------------------------------*/

int continue_functi on( void )
{
printf("\n\nDo you wish to continue? (0=NO/1=YES): ");
scanf( "%d", &x );

while( x < 0 || x > 1 )
{
printf("\n%d is invalid!", x);
printf("\nPleas e enter 0 to Quit or 1 to Continue: ");
scanf("%d", &x);
}
if(x == 0)
return(NO);
else
return(YES);
}
=============== =============== =============== =============== =============== =======
May 10 '06 #1
7 2163
Buck Rogers said:
Hi all! Newbie here.
People have been posting using the name "Buck Rogers" for around four years.
I sincerely hope all those articles are not from you, because if you've
taken four years to get this far in your studies, it might be time to call
it a day. If you're a fresh-faced learner who is just starting out, though,
then forget I said anything (but possibly pick a name that is more likely
to be unique!).

Below is an example from Teach Yourself C in 21 Days. My apologies
if it is a bit long.
It is also badly-written, so - if you *must* use that book - be prepared to
unlearn some bad habits and some misconceptions later on.

What I don't understand is how the "get_data" function can call the
"continue_funct ion", and if NO is returned to "get_data", display_report
executes and the program ends? Basically I am having trouble understanding
the program flow within the "if" loop in the "main" function.
"if" is not a loop construct. It's selection, not iteration.
The "if" loops only initiates if cont=YES, so what happens if a function
in the loop(in this case get_data) gets cont=NO?
On receiving a return value of NO from continue_functi on(), get_data()
terminates its loop on the next test, i.e. just about immediately, and
exits. Control now returns to the caller, within main(). The statement just
processed was get_data(), so control now flows to the next statement along,
which is display_report( ). Therefore, display_report( ) is executed.


Does this really mean that if "something" within an "if" loop doesn't meet the condition of the
loop,
the result is that the next statement below the "something" gets executed
and the the "if" loop is exited?

Hope I made myself clear.

Thanks in advance!

=============== =============== =============== =============== =============== ==== #include <stdio.h>

#define MAX 100
#define YES 1
#define NO 0

/*--------------------*/
/* variables */
/*--------------------*/

long income[MAX]; /* to hold incomes */
int month[MAX], day[MAX], year[MAX]; /* to hold birthdays */
int x, y, ctr; /* For counters */
int cont; /* For program control */
long month_total, grand_total; /* For totals */

/*--------------------*/
/* function prototypes*/
/*--------------------*/

int main(void);
int display_instruc tions(void);
void get_data(void);
void display_report( void);
int continue_functi on(void);

/*--------------------*/
/* start of program */
/*--------------------*/

int main(void)
{
cont = display_instruc tions();

if ( cont == YES ) /* <============== =============== === LOOK
HERE!
*/
{
get_data();
display_report( );
}
else
printf( "\nProgram Aborted by User!\n\n");

return 0;
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: display_instruc tions() *
* Purpose: This function displays information on how to *
* use this program and asks the user to enter 0 *
* to quit, or 1 to continue. *
* Returns: NO - if user enters 0 *
* YES - if user enters any number other than 0 *
*-----------------------------------------------------------*/
int display_instruc tions( void )
{
printf("\n\n");
printf("\nThis program enables you to enter up to 99 people\'s ");
printf("\nincom es and birthdays. It then prints the incomes by");
printf("\nmonth along with the overall income and overall average.");
printf("\n");

cont = continue_functi on();
return( cont );
}
/*-------------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: get_data() *
* Purpose: This function gets the data from the user. It *
* continues to get data until either 100 people are *
* entered, or until the user enters 0 for the month.*
* Returns: nothing *
* Notes: This allows 0/0/0 to be entered for birthdays in *
* case the user is unsure. It also allows for 31 *
* days in each month. *
*-------------------------------------------------------------*/

void get_data(void)
{
for ( cont = YES, ctr = 0; ctr < MAX && cont == YES; ctr++ )
{
printf("\nEnter information for Person %d.", ctr+1 );
printf("\n\tEnt er Birthday:");

do
{
printf("\n\tMon th (0 - 12): ");
scanf("%d", &month[ctr]);
}while (month[ctr] < 0 || month[ctr] > 12 );

do
{
printf("\n\tDay (0 - 31): ");
scanf("%d", &day[ctr]);
}while ( day[ctr] < 0 || day[ctr] > 31 );

do
{
printf("\n\tYea r (0 - 2002): ");
scanf("%d", &year[ctr]);
}while ( year[ctr] < 0 || year[ctr] > 2002 );

printf("\nEnter Yearly Income (whole dollars): ");
scanf("%ld", &income[ctr]);

cont = continue_functi on(); /*
<============== =============== ======== LOOK HERE! */
}
/* ctr equals the number of people that were entered. */
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: display_report( ) *
* Purpose: This function displays a report to the screen *
* Returns: nothing *
* Notes: More information could be printed. *
*----------------------------------------------------------*/

void display_report( )
{
grand_total = 0;
printf("\n\n\n" ); /* skip a few lines */
printf("\n SALARY SUMMARY");
printf("\n ==============" );

for( x = 0; x <= 12; x++ ) /* for each month, including 0*/
{
month_total = 0;
for( y = 0; y < ctr; y++ )
{
if( month[y] == x )
month_total += income[y];
}
printf("\nTotal for month %d is %ld", x, month_total);
grand_total += month_total;
}
printf("\n\nRep ort totals:");
printf("\nTotal Income is %ld", grand_total);
printf("\nAvera ge Income is %ld", grand_total/ctr );

printf("\n\n* * * End of Report * * *\n");
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: continue_functi on() *
* Purpose: This function asks the user if they wish to continue.*
* Returns: YES - if user wishes to continue *
* NO - if user wishes to quit *
*----------------------------------------------------------------*/

int continue_functi on( void )
{
printf("\n\nDo you wish to continue? (0=NO/1=YES): ");
scanf( "%d", &x );

while( x < 0 || x > 1 )
{
printf("\n%d is invalid!", x);
printf("\nPleas e enter 0 to Quit or 1 to Continue: ");
scanf("%d", &x);
}
if(x == 0)
return(NO);
else
return(YES);
}

=============== =============== =============== =============== =============== =======

--
Richard Heathfield
"Usenet is a strange place" - dmr 29/7/1999
http://www.cpax.org.uk
email: rjh at above domain (but drop the www, obviously)
May 10 '06 #2

Buck Rogers wrote:
Hi all! Newbie here.

Below is an example from Teach Yourself C in 21 Days. My apologies
if it is a bit long.

What I don't understand is how the "get_data" function can call the
"continue_funct ion", and if NO is returned to "get_data", display_report
executes and the program ends? Basically I am having trouble understanding
the program flow within the "if" loop in the "main" function.

The "if" loops only initiates if cont=YES, so what happens if a function
in the loop(in this case get_data) gets cont=NO? Does this really mean
that if "something" within an "if" loop doesn't meet the condition of the
loop,
the result is that the next statement below the "something" gets executed
and the the "if" loop is exited?

Hope I made myself clear.
What seems clear is that you need to go back and carefully study a good
C textbook, and I mean it in the nicest possible way.

There is no such thing as "if loop". The way `if` *statement* works is
this:

if (condition) {
/* "then" block */
} else {
/* "else" block */
}
/* "next" statement */

If `condition` (which is an expression) is non-zero, statements in the
"then" block get executed. Otherwise, statements in the "else" block
get executed. Once one of them is executed, the execution continues
with the "next" statement.

The "else" block is optional. If omitted, and the `condition` is zero,
the execution continues with the "next" statement.

In both "then" and "else" blocks curly braces are requied only if the
blocks contain more than one statement. So, you can have:

if (condition)
printf("true\n" );
else
printf("false\n ");

Note how the "then" statement still has to have a terminating ';'.

I'm sure your textbook (but apparently not the "...in 21 days" one) can
describe this much better, and in greater detail. I'm also sure someone
will shortly come along and correct any mistakes I made, but I think I
put across the most important things you seem to have misunderstood.

I recommend you get yourself K&R2, and read it.

Thanks in advance!

=============== =============== =============== =============== =============== ====
#include <stdio.h>

#define MAX 100
#define YES 1
#define NO 0

/*--------------------*/
/* variables */
/*--------------------*/

long income[MAX]; /* to hold incomes */
int month[MAX], day[MAX], year[MAX]; /* to hold birthdays */
int x, y, ctr; /* For counters */
int cont; /* For program control */
long month_total, grand_total; /* For totals */

/*--------------------*/
/* function prototypes*/
/*--------------------*/

int main(void);
int display_instruc tions(void);
void get_data(void);
void display_report( void);
int continue_functi on(void);

/*--------------------*/
/* start of program */
/*--------------------*/

int main(void)
{
cont = display_instruc tions();

if ( cont == YES ) /* <============== =============== === LOOK HERE!
*/
{
get_data();
display_report( );
}
else
printf( "\nProgram Aborted by User!\n\n");

return 0;
}
/*-----------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: display_instruc tions() *
* Purpose: This function displays information on how to *
* use this program and asks the user to enter 0 *
* to quit, or 1 to continue. *
* Returns: NO - if user enters 0 *
* YES - if user enters any number other than 0 *
*-----------------------------------------------------------*/
int display_instruc tions( void )
{
printf("\n\n");
printf("\nThis program enables you to enter up to 99 people\'s ");
printf("\nincom es and birthdays. It then prints the incomes by");
printf("\nmonth along with the overall income and overall average.");
printf("\n");

cont = continue_functi on();
return( cont );
}
/*-------------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: get_data() *
* Purpose: This function gets the data from the user. It *
* continues to get data until either 100 people are *
* entered, or until the user enters 0 for the month.*
* Returns: nothing *
* Notes: This allows 0/0/0 to be entered for birthdays in *
* case the user is unsure. It also allows for 31 *
* days in each month. *
*-------------------------------------------------------------*/

void get_data(void)
{
for ( cont = YES, ctr = 0; ctr < MAX && cont == YES; ctr++ )
{
printf("\nEnter information for Person %d.", ctr+1 );
printf("\n\tEnt er Birthday:");

do
{
printf("\n\tMon th (0 - 12): ");
scanf("%d", &month[ctr]);
}while (month[ctr] < 0 || month[ctr] > 12 );

do
{
printf("\n\tDay (0 - 31): ");
scanf("%d", &day[ctr]);
}while ( day[ctr] < 0 || day[ctr] > 31 );

do
{
printf("\n\tYea r (0 - 2002): ");
scanf("%d", &year[ctr]);
}while ( year[ctr] < 0 || year[ctr] > 2002 );

printf("\nEnter Yearly Income (whole dollars): ");
scanf("%ld", &income[ctr]);

cont = continue_functi on(); /*
<============== =============== ======== LOOK HERE! */
}
/* ctr equals the number of people that were entered. */
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: display_report( ) *
* Purpose: This function displays a report to the screen *
* Returns: nothing *
* Notes: More information could be printed. *
*----------------------------------------------------------*/

void display_report( )
{
grand_total = 0;
printf("\n\n\n" ); /* skip a few lines */
printf("\n SALARY SUMMARY");
printf("\n ==============" );

for( x = 0; x <= 12; x++ ) /* for each month, including 0*/
{
month_total = 0;
for( y = 0; y < ctr; y++ )
{
if( month[y] == x )
month_total += income[y];
}
printf("\nTotal for month %d is %ld", x, month_total);
grand_total += month_total;
}
printf("\n\nRep ort totals:");
printf("\nTotal Income is %ld", grand_total);
printf("\nAvera ge Income is %ld", grand_total/ctr );

printf("\n\n* * * End of Report * * *\n");
}
/*----------------------------------------------------------------*
* Function: continue_functi on() *
* Purpose: This function asks the user if they wish to continue.*
* Returns: YES - if user wishes to continue *
* NO - if user wishes to quit *
*----------------------------------------------------------------*/

int continue_functi on( void )
{
printf("\n\nDo you wish to continue? (0=NO/1=YES): ");
scanf( "%d", &x );

while( x < 0 || x > 1 )
{
printf("\n%d is invalid!", x);
printf("\nPleas e enter 0 to Quit or 1 to Continue: ");
scanf("%d", &x);
}
if(x == 0)
return(NO);
else
return(YES);
}
=============== =============== =============== =============== =============== =======


May 10 '06 #3
Vladimir Oka said:
What seems clear is that you need to go back and carefully study a good
C textbook, and I mean it in the nicest possible way.


I was about to give you a mild slapping for forgetting to trim all that code
you didn't comment on. But... er... well... <blush fgcolor="bright red">

--
Richard Heathfield
"Usenet is a strange place" - dmr 29/7/1999
http://www.cpax.org.uk
email: rjh at above domain (but drop the www, obviously)
May 10 '06 #4
On Wed, 10 May 2006 17:14:15 +0800, Richard Heathfield
<in*****@invali d.invalid> wrote:
People have been posting using the name "Buck Rogers" for around four
years.
I sincerely hope all those articles are not from you, because if you've
taken four years to get this far in your studies, it might be time to
call
it a day.

LMAO! Yep, it's me again! Good to C you again! C was and still is just
a hobby. Back then I didn't take it very seriously, and eventually gave
it up. Recently, I tried twice to sell the book(Teach Yourself C in 21
Days) on ebay, with no buyer. So I thought I'd give it another go before
giving it another go before I give it to charity, or throw it in the trash.
So here I am. Still a newbie 4 years later - probably for the rest of my
life! :D
Below is an example from Teach Yourself C in 21 Days. My apologies
if it is a bit long.
It is also badly-written, so - if you *must* use that book - be prepared
to
unlearn some bad habits and some misconceptions later on.


Yep, there's heaps of typo and mistakes in it, but it's good I am picking
those up, since I am taking it a bit more C-riously this time around. I am
just using it to get my toe in the C water. For a reference, I have "A book
on C", by Kelley/Pohl, which is very terse, but seems to have a better
reputation.


On receiving a return value of NO from continue_functi on(), get_data()
terminates its loop on the next test, i.e. just about immediately, and
exits. Control now returns to the caller, within main(). The statement
just
processed was get_data(), so control now flows to the next statement
along,
which is display_report( ). Therefore, display_report( ) is executed.


Thanks for your help. I remember you helping me heaps years ago. :D
C you around like a fruit loop!!

Buck.
May 10 '06 #5

Richard Heathfield wrote:
Vladimir Oka said:
What seems clear is that you need to go back and carefully study a good
C textbook, and I mean it in the nicest possible way.


I was about to give you a mild slapping for forgetting to trim all that code
you didn't comment on. But... er... well... <blush fgcolor="bright red">


Great minds think alike -- even when they mess things up. ;-)

[In my defence, I'm forced to use Google from the office.]

May 10 '06 #6
Richard Heathfield wrote:

Buck Rogers said:

Below is an example from Teach Yourself C in 21 Days. My apologies
if it is a bit long.


It is also badly-written,
so - if you *must* use that book - be prepared to
unlearn some bad habits and some misconceptions later on.


That's the book I learned from.
The unlearning should take about two years on clc.

--
pete
May 10 '06 #7
Buck Rogers wrote:
On Wed, 10 May 2006 17:14:15 +0800, Richard Heathfield
<in*****@invali d.invalid> wrote:
People have been posting using the name "Buck Rogers" for around four
years.
I sincerely hope all those articles are not from you, because if you've
taken four years to get this far in your studies, it might be time to
call
it a day.


LMAO! Yep, it's me again! Good to C you again! C was and still is just
a hobby. Back then I didn't take it very seriously, and eventually gave
it up. Recently, I tried twice to sell the book(Teach Yourself C in 21
Days) on ebay, with no buyer. So I thought I'd give it another go before
giving it another go before I give it to charity, or throw it in the trash.
So here I am. Still a newbie 4 years later - probably for the rest of my
life! :D

That should have been your first warning. Recycle the book and get one
of the titles recommended elsewhere.

That being said, there is no shame in taking the long road. You will be
expected to put in the hours, however.
May 10 '06 #8

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Dear forum friends, With the development of smart home technology, a variety of wireless communication protocols have appeared on the market, such as Zigbee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. Each protocol has its own unique characteristics and advantages, but as a user who is planning to build a smart home system, I am a bit confused by the...
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6219
agi2029
by: agi2029 | last post by:
Let's talk about the concept of autonomous AI software engineers and no-code agents. These AIs are designed to manage the entire lifecycle of a software development project—planning, coding, testing, and deployment—without human intervention. Imagine an AI that can take a project description, break it down, write the code, debug it, and then...
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5193
by: conductexam | last post by:
I have .net C# application in which I am extracting data from word file and save it in database particularly. To store word all data as it is I am converting the whole word file firstly in HTML and then checking html paragraph one by one. At the time of converting from word file to html my equations which are in the word document file was convert...
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3621
by: TSSRALBI | last post by:
Hello I'm a network technician in training and I need your help. I am currently learning how to create and manage the different types of VPNs and I have a question about LAN-to-LAN VPNs. The last exercise I practiced was to create a LAN-to-LAN VPN between two Pfsense firewalls, by using IPSEC protocols. I succeeded, with both firewalls in...
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2073
by: 6302768590 | last post by:
Hai team i want code for transfer the data from one system to another through IP address by using C# our system has to for every 5mins then we have to update the data what the data is updated we have to send another system

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