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How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"
Nov 14 '05 #1
23 5291
Davey wrote:

How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"


Here's one common way to do it:

1) reserve enough storage for a string that can contain the whole
result.
If your integer is an unsigned long int, say, then you know that it
can't have more than sizeof(long int) * CHAR_BIT value bits, so just
define an array of char, sizeof(long int) * CHAR_BIT + 1 bytes in
length.

2) point to the start of the string.

3) if the number is even, write '0' through the pointer. Otherwise,
write '1' through the pointer.

4) increment the pointer.

5) divide the number by 2.

6) if the number is non-zero, continue from step 3).

7) write '\0' through the pointer, to null-terminate the string.

8) reverse the string, taking care to leave the terminator in place.
Nov 14 '05 #2
Davey wrote:
How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"

You should try it yourself.

void bits(uchar b, int n) {
for (--n; n >= 0; --n)
putchar((b & 1 << n) ? '1' : '0');
putchar(' ');
}

The above is not a program, but a clue.
--
Joe Wright mailto:jo****** **@comcast.net
"Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler."
--- Albert Einstein ---
Nov 14 '05 #3

Davey wrote:
How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <limits.h>

#define SHOWBITS(var) bitshow((unsign ed char *)&var, sizeof(var))

int bitshow(unsigne d char *p, int size)
{
int count = 0;
int byte;
while(size)
{
byte = CHAR_BIT;
while(byte > 0)
{
if(*p & 1 << byte)
{
putchar('1');
count++;
}
else putchar('0');

byte--;
}
putchar('\n');
size--;
p++;
}
return count;
}

int main(void)
{
int i= 0xFD1;

SHOWBIT(i); /* returns number of set bits, discarded */

puts("Press ENTER when done"), getchar();
return 0;
}

Nov 14 '05 #4
Davey wrote:
How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"

I thought this sounded familar, so I looked in my archives and sure
enough, there it was. I can't believe almost 11 years have gone by!

/*************** *************** *************** *************** ***/
/* File Id: bin.c. */
/* Author: Stan Milam. */
/* Date Written: 28-Apr-94. */
/* */
/* This program will print an unsigned integer value entered on*/
/* the command line in it binary format. */
/* */
/*************** *************** *************** *************** ***/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

int main( int argc, char **argv ) {

unsigned value, rv, mask, i;

/*************** *************** *************** **************/
/* Check to see if command line args used. If not give tell*/
/* user how the program works. */
/*************** *************** *************** **************/

if ( argc < 2 ) {
fputs("Usage: BIN integer_number\ n", stderr);
return 1;
}

/*************** *************** *************** **************/
/* Determine the mask. Done this way to be portable. Also */
/* Extract the value from command line. */
/*************** *************** *************** **************/

mask = 1 << sizeof(unsigned ) * CHAR_BIT - 1;
value = (unsigned) strtol(argv[1], NULL, 0);

/*************** *************** *************** **************/
/* For each possible bit determine its state and print. */
/*************** *************** *************** **************/

for ( i = 0; i < sizeof(unsigned ) * CHAR_BIT; i++ ) {
rv = (value & mask) >> (sizeof(unsigne d) * CHAR_BIT - 1);
value <<= 1;
printf("%d", rv);
}

printf("\n");
return 0;
}
Nov 14 '05 #5
Stan Milam wrote:
Davey wrote:
How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"


I thought this sounded familar, so I looked in my archives and sure
enough, there it was. I can't believe almost 11 years have gone by!

/*************** *************** *************** *************** ***/
/* File Id: bin.c. */
/* Author: Stan Milam. */
/* Date Written: 28-Apr-94. */
/* */
/* This program will print an unsigned integer value entered on*/
/* the command line in it binary format. */
/* */
/*************** *************** *************** *************** ***/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

int main( int argc, char **argv ) {

unsigned value, rv, mask, i;

/*************** *************** *************** **************/
/* Check to see if command line args used. If not give tell*/
/* user how the program works. */
/*************** *************** *************** **************/

.... snip code ...

Here is something more generalized, with testing code. Also been
around a while in various guises.

/* Routines to display values in various bases */
/* with some useful helper routines. */
/* by C.B. Falconer, 19 Sept. 2001 */
/* Released to public domain. Attribution appreciated */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h> /* ULONG_MAX etc. */

/* =============== ======== */
/* reverse string in place */
size_t revstring(char *stg)
{
char *last, temp;
size_t lgh;

lgh = strlen(stg);
if (lgh > 1) {
last = stg + lgh; /* points to '\0' */
while (last-- > stg) {
temp = *stg; *stg++ = *last; *last = temp;
}
}
return lgh;
} /* revstring */

/* =============== =============== ============== */
/* Mask and convert digit to hex representation */
/* Output range is 0..9 and a..f only */
int hexify(unsigned int value)
{
static char hexchars[] = "0123456789abcd ef";

return (hexchars[value & 0xf]);
} /* hexify */

/* =============== =============== =============== ===== */
/* convert unsigned number to string in various bases */
/* 2 <= base <= 16, controlled by hexify() */
/* Returns actual output string length */
size_t basedisplay(uns igned long number, unsigned int base,
char *stg, size_t maxlgh)
{
char *s;

/* assert (stg[maxlgh]) is valid storage */
s = stg;
if (maxlgh && base)
do {
*s = hexify(number % base);
s++;
} while (--maxlgh && (number = number / base) );
*s = '\0';
revstring(stg);
return (s - stg);
} /* basedisplay */

/* =============== =============== =============== === */
/* convert signed number to string in various bases */
/* 2 <= base <= 16, controlled by hexify() */
/* Returns actual output string length */
size_t signbasedisplay (long number, unsigned int base,
char * stg, size_t maxlgh)
{
char *s;
size_t lgh;
unsigned long n;

s = stg; lgh = 0;
n = (unsigned long)number;
if (maxlgh && (number < 0L)) {
*s++ = '-';
maxlgh--;
n = -(unsigned long)number;
lgh = 1;
}
lgh = lgh + basedisplay(n, base, s, maxlgh);
return lgh;
} /* signbaseddispla y */
/* =============== ===== */
/* flush to end-of-line */
int flushln(FILE *f)
{
int ch;

while ('\n' != (ch = fgetc(f)) && (EOF != ch)) /* more */;
return ch;
} /* flushln */

/* ========== END of generically useful routines ============ */

/* =============== ========== */
/* Prompt and await <return> */
static void nexttest(char *prompt)
{
static char empty[] = "";

if (NULL == prompt) prompt = empty;
printf("\nHit return for next test: %s", prompt);
fflush(stdout);
flushln(stdin);
} /* nexttest */

/* =============== =============== */
/* Display a value and its length */
static void show(char *caption, int sz, char *stg)
{

if ((unsigned)sz != strlen(stg))
printf("Somethi ng is wrong with the sz value\n");
printf("%s: sz = %2d \"%s\"\n", caption, sz, stg);
} /* show */

/* =========== */
/* exercise it */
int main(void)
{
#define LGH 40
#define VALUE 1234567890

char stg[LGH];
unsigned int base;
int sz;

printf("\nExerc ising basedisplay routine\n");
printf("\nbase sz value\n");
for (base = 2; base <= 16; base++) {
sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, base, stg, LGH - 1);
printf("%2d %2d %s\n", base, sz, stg);
}

nexttest("ULONG _MAX");
for (base = 8; base <= 16; base++) {
sz = (int)basedispla y(ULONG_MAX, base, stg, LGH - 1);
printf("%2d %2d %s\n", base, sz, stg);
}

basedisplay(0, 10, stg, 3);
printf("\nzero %s\n", stg);

basedisplay(VAL UE, 10, stg, 3);
printf("3 lsdigits only, base 10 %s\n", stg);

printf("\nBad calls:\n");

sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, 10, stg, 0);
show("0 length field", sz, stg);

sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, 1, stg, 20);
show("base 1, lgh 20", sz, stg);

sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, 0, stg, 20);
show("base 0, lgh 20", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(-1234, 10, stg, 0);
show("0 lgh fld, -ve", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(-1234, 10, stg, 2);
show("truncate -1234", sz, stg);

nexttest("Syste m limits");

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SCHAR_MIN , 10, stg, 20);
show("SCHAR_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SCHAR_MAX , 10, stg, 20);
show("SCHAR_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(UCHAR_MAX , 10, stg, 20);
show("UCHAR_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(CHAR_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("CHAR_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(CHAR_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("CHAR_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(MB_LEN_MA X, 10, stg, 20);
show("MB_LEN_MA X ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SHRT_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("SHRT_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SHRT_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("SHRT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(USHRT_MAX , 10, stg, 20);
show("USHRT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(INT_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("INT_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(INT_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("INT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(INT_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("INT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int) basedisplay(UIN T_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("UINT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(LONG_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("LONG_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(LONG_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("LONG_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int) basedisplay(ULO NG_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("ULONG_MAX ", sz, stg);

nexttest("DONE" );
return 0;
} /* main */

--
"If you want to post a followup via groups.google.c om, don't use
the broken "Reply" link at the bottom of the article. Click on
"show options" at the top of the article, then click on the
"Reply" at the bottom of the article headers." - Keith Thompson
Nov 14 '05 #6
Davey wrote:
How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"


void dump(unsigned x)
{
unsigned m;
if (x == 0) m = 1;
else for (m = -1u/2+1; !(x & m); m >>= 1) ;
do { putchar('0' + !!(x & m)); } while (m >>= 1);
}

--
Peter

Nov 14 '05 #7
CBFalconer wrote:
Stan Milam wrote:
Davey wrote:

How do I display an integer in binary format in C?

e.g. 4 displayed as "100"


I thought this sounded familar, so I looked in my archives and sure
enough, there it was. I can't believe almost 11 years have gone by!

/*************** *************** *************** *************** ***/
/* File Id: bin.c. */
/* Author: Stan Milam. */
/* Date Written: 28-Apr-94. */
/* */
/* This program will print an unsigned integer value entered on*/
/* the command line in it binary format. */
/* */
/*************** *************** *************** *************** ***/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <limits.h>

int main( int argc, char **argv ) {

unsigned value, rv, mask, i;

/*************** *************** *************** **************/
/* Check to see if command line args used. If not give tell*/
/* user how the program works. */
/*************** *************** *************** **************/


... snip code ...

Here is something more generalized, with testing code. Also been
around a while in various guises.

/* Routines to display values in various bases */
/* with some useful helper routines. */
/* by C.B. Falconer, 19 Sept. 2001 */
/* Released to public domain. Attribution appreciated */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h> /* ULONG_MAX etc. */

/* =============== ======== */
/* reverse string in place */
size_t revstring(char *stg)
{
char *last, temp;
size_t lgh;

lgh = strlen(stg);
if (lgh > 1) {
last = stg + lgh; /* points to '\0' */
while (last-- > stg) {
temp = *stg; *stg++ = *last; *last = temp;
}
}
return lgh;
} /* revstring */

/* =============== =============== ============== */
/* Mask and convert digit to hex representation */
/* Output range is 0..9 and a..f only */
int hexify(unsigned int value)
{
static char hexchars[] = "0123456789abcd ef";

return (hexchars[value & 0xf]);
} /* hexify */

/* =============== =============== =============== ===== */
/* convert unsigned number to string in various bases */
/* 2 <= base <= 16, controlled by hexify() */
/* Returns actual output string length */
size_t basedisplay(uns igned long number, unsigned int base,
char *stg, size_t maxlgh)
{
char *s;

/* assert (stg[maxlgh]) is valid storage */
s = stg;
if (maxlgh && base)
do {
*s = hexify(number % base);
s++;
} while (--maxlgh && (number = number / base) );
*s = '\0';
revstring(stg);
return (s - stg);
} /* basedisplay */

/* =============== =============== =============== === */
/* convert signed number to string in various bases */
/* 2 <= base <= 16, controlled by hexify() */
/* Returns actual output string length */
size_t signbasedisplay (long number, unsigned int base,
char * stg, size_t maxlgh)
{
char *s;
size_t lgh;
unsigned long n;

s = stg; lgh = 0;
n = (unsigned long)number;
if (maxlgh && (number < 0L)) {
*s++ = '-';
maxlgh--;
n = -(unsigned long)number;
lgh = 1;
}
lgh = lgh + basedisplay(n, base, s, maxlgh);
return lgh;
} /* signbaseddispla y */
/* =============== ===== */
/* flush to end-of-line */
int flushln(FILE *f)
{
int ch;

while ('\n' != (ch = fgetc(f)) && (EOF != ch)) /* more */;
return ch;
} /* flushln */

/* ========== END of generically useful routines ============ */

/* =============== ========== */
/* Prompt and await <return> */
static void nexttest(char *prompt)
{
static char empty[] = "";

if (NULL == prompt) prompt = empty;
printf("\nHit return for next test: %s", prompt);
fflush(stdout);
flushln(stdin);
} /* nexttest */

/* =============== =============== */
/* Display a value and its length */
static void show(char *caption, int sz, char *stg)
{

if ((unsigned)sz != strlen(stg))
printf("Somethi ng is wrong with the sz value\n");
printf("%s: sz = %2d \"%s\"\n", caption, sz, stg);
} /* show */

/* =========== */
/* exercise it */
int main(void)
{
#define LGH 40
#define VALUE 1234567890

char stg[LGH];
unsigned int base;
int sz;

printf("\nExerc ising basedisplay routine\n");
printf("\nbase sz value\n");
for (base = 2; base <= 16; base++) {
sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, base, stg, LGH - 1);
printf("%2d %2d %s\n", base, sz, stg);
}

nexttest("ULONG _MAX");
for (base = 8; base <= 16; base++) {
sz = (int)basedispla y(ULONG_MAX, base, stg, LGH - 1);
printf("%2d %2d %s\n", base, sz, stg);
}

basedisplay(0, 10, stg, 3);
printf("\nzero %s\n", stg);

basedisplay(VAL UE, 10, stg, 3);
printf("3 lsdigits only, base 10 %s\n", stg);

printf("\nBad calls:\n");

sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, 10, stg, 0);
show("0 length field", sz, stg);

sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, 1, stg, 20);
show("base 1, lgh 20", sz, stg);

sz = (int)basedispla y(VALUE, 0, stg, 20);
show("base 0, lgh 20", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(-1234, 10, stg, 0);
show("0 lgh fld, -ve", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(-1234, 10, stg, 2);
show("truncate -1234", sz, stg);

nexttest("Syste m limits");

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SCHAR_MIN , 10, stg, 20);
show("SCHAR_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SCHAR_MAX , 10, stg, 20);
show("SCHAR_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(UCHAR_MAX , 10, stg, 20);
show("UCHAR_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(CHAR_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("CHAR_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(CHAR_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("CHAR_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(MB_LEN_MA X, 10, stg, 20);
show("MB_LEN_MA X ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SHRT_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("SHRT_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(SHRT_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("SHRT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(USHRT_MAX , 10, stg, 20);
show("USHRT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(INT_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("INT_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(INT_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("INT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(INT_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("INT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int) basedisplay(UIN T_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("UINT_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(LONG_MIN, 10, stg, 20);
show("LONG_MIN ", sz, stg);

sz = (int)signbasedi splay(LONG_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("LONG_MAX ", sz, stg);

sz = (int) basedisplay(ULO NG_MAX, 10, stg, 20);
show("ULONG_MAX ", sz, stg);

nexttest("DONE" );
return 0;
} /* main */


CB, keep it small, keep it simple, keep it readable and you will be more
productive and live longer.

Stan.
Nov 14 '05 #8
Stan Milam wrote:
CBFalconer wrote:
<snip>
CB, keep it small, keep it simple, keep it readable and you
will be more productive and live longer.


Any reason why you quoted the whole thing?

Your post would be more productive if you pointed out the
issue with LONG_MIN within CBF's code. ;)

--
Peter

Nov 14 '05 #9
Peter Nilsson wrote:
Stan Milam wrote:
CBFalconer wrote:


<snip>
CB, keep it small, keep it simple, keep it readable and you
will be more productive and live longer.


Any reason why you quoted the whole thing?

Your post would be more productive if you pointed out the
issue with LONG_MIN within CBF's code. ;)


What issue? A value of LONG_MIN is immediately converted to an
unsigned long with a '-' sign emitted.

--
"If you want to post a followup via groups.google.c om, don't use
the broken "Reply" link at the bottom of the article. Click on
"show options" at the top of the article, then click on the
"Reply" at the bottom of the article headers." - Keith Thompson
Nov 14 '05 #10

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Dear forum friends, With the development of smart home technology, a variety of wireless communication protocols have appeared on the market, such as Zigbee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. Each protocol has its own unique characteristics and advantages, but as a user who is planning to build a smart home system, I am a bit confused by the choice of these technologies. I'm particularly interested in Zigbee because I've heard it does some...
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isladogs
by: isladogs | last post by:
The next Access Europe User Group meeting will be on Wednesday 1 May 2024 starting at 18:00 UK time (6PM UTC+1) and finishing by 19:30 (7.30PM). In this session, we are pleased to welcome a new presenter, Adolph Dupré who will be discussing some powerful techniques for using class modules. He will explain when you may want to use classes instead of User Defined Types (UDT). For example, to manage the data in unbound forms. Adolph will...
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by: adsilva | last post by:
A Windows Forms form does not have the event Unload, like VB6. What one acts like?
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muto222
by: muto222 | last post by:
How can i add a mobile payment intergratation into php mysql website.
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bsmnconsultancy
by: bsmnconsultancy | last post by:
In today's digital era, a well-designed website is crucial for businesses looking to succeed. Whether you're a small business owner or a large corporation in Toronto, having a strong online presence can significantly impact your brand's success. BSMN Consultancy, a leader in Website Development in Toronto offers valuable insights into creating effective websites that not only look great but also perform exceptionally well. In this comprehensive...

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