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Garbage Collection Issues in long-standing services

I'm having issues with garbage collection with my long-standing service
process. If you could review and point me in the right direction it would be
of great help. If there are any helpful documents that you could point me to
help me control the GC, then that would be great also.

The .Net GC does not cleanup memory of our service process unless it is
forced to by another process that hogs memory.
· GC Algorithm - This is an issue because if the GC is not forced into doing
this, it does not aggressively cleanup until the amount of physical memory
available is very small. I understand why it doesn’t want to force cleanup
due to processor efficiency, but it forces applications into conditions that
are not acceptable. It would be nice to be able to hint an upper limit for
an application that helps the GC be more aggressive when required.
· Race Condition – The GC Algorithm causes race conditions because the GC is
not coordinated with our application and our application throws
OutOfMemoryExce ptions. We have very good exception handling that guards
against unhandled exceptions in the main thread and thread pool threads. The
problem is that we use memory to log these issues so the handlers are
probably throwing another OutOfMemoryExce ption. We can handle this, but the
point is the OutOfMemoryExce ption cause a transaction to fail.
· Force GC To Collect - I wrote a Memory Hogger application which when run
will reduce the amount of memory used by the service application from 800MB
to 3MB, so this proves that the GC will cleanup the memory when it truly
needs it. I noticed that Memory Usage displayed in the Task Manager Process
tab did not add up to the total amount of memory in use, so this means that
the inactive applications probably moved their heap to swap. One concern
here was that when the Memory Hogger application was terminated, our service
application reclaimed half of its memory and we were not processing
transactions. Maybe GC just moved it to swap.
· GC.Collect – Using this is not recommended within the application. Even
when this is used, it doesn’t make the GC any more aggressive, so I agree,
there is no reason to use it. It would be nice to have the ability to make
the GC more aggressive.
· CLR Profiler - I’ve used the CLR Profiler to determine what memory is not
being collected. Mostly string and byte arrays. Our service handles TCP
Connections asynchronously and we reuse the same byte array when receiving
data for the next asynchronous read. We store a reference to the current
IAsyncResult for both the asynchronous send and receive requests. The state
object holds the byte array which we are currently not setting to null.
There isn’t a way of canceling the async requests, so we might have to
explicitly set this to null. I will try this to see if makes a difference.
As for the strings, I’m not sure where the problem is here.

Dec 21 '05 #1
18 2177
Did you ever checked the GC performance counters (using perfmon) to check
whether this is true? The GC is more aggressive than you imagine.
Just check the Gen0 1 and 2 performance counters and you will see that the
collector runs, your problem is that you are holding references to objects
(probably large objects) which you never release, so there is little or
nothing to collect.
By starting another process that allocates memory, your service working set
gets trimmed by the OS, that all that happens.

Willy.

"Larry Herbinaux" <La************ @discussions.mi crosoft.com> wrote in
message news:72******** *************** ***********@mic rosoft.com...
I'm having issues with garbage collection with my long-standing service
process. If you could review and point me in the right direction it would
be
of great help. If there are any helpful documents that you could point me
to
help me control the GC, then that would be great also.

The .Net GC does not cleanup memory of our service process unless it is
forced to by another process that hogs memory.
· GC Algorithm - This is an issue because if the GC is not forced into
doing
this, it does not aggressively cleanup until the amount of physical memory
available is very small. I understand why it doesn’t want to force
cleanup
due to processor efficiency, but it forces applications into conditions
that
are not acceptable. It would be nice to be able to hint an upper limit
for
an application that helps the GC be more aggressive when required.
· Race Condition – The GC Algorithm causes race conditions because the
GC is
not coordinated with our application and our application throws
OutOfMemoryExce ptions. We have very good exception handling that guards
against unhandled exceptions in the main thread and thread pool threads.
The
problem is that we use memory to log these issues so the handlers are
probably throwing another OutOfMemoryExce ption. We can handle this, but
the
point is the OutOfMemoryExce ption cause a transaction to fail.
· Force GC To Collect - I wrote a Memory Hogger application which when
run
will reduce the amount of memory used by the service application from
800MB
to 3MB, so this proves that the GC will cleanup the memory when it truly
needs it. I noticed that Memory Usage displayed in the Task Manager
Process
tab did not add up to the total amount of memory in use, so this means
that
the inactive applications probably moved their heap to swap. One concern
here was that when the Memory Hogger application was terminated, our
service
application reclaimed half of its memory and we were not processing
transactions. Maybe GC just moved it to swap.
· GC.Collect – Using this is not recommended within the application.
Even
when this is used, it doesn’t make the GC any more aggressive, so I
agree,
there is no reason to use it. It would be nice to have the ability to
make
the GC more aggressive.
· CLR Profiler - I’ve used the CLR Profiler to determine what memory is
not
being collected. Mostly string and byte arrays. Our service handles TCP
Connections asynchronously and we reuse the same byte array when receiving
data for the next asynchronous read. We store a reference to the current
IAsyncResult for both the asynchronous send and receive requests. The
state
object holds the byte array which we are currently not setting to null.
There isn’t a way of canceling the async requests, so we might have to
explicitly set this to null. I will try this to see if makes a
difference.
As for the strings, I’m not sure where the problem is here.

Dec 21 '05 #2
Willy Denoyette [MVP] wrote:
Did you ever checked the GC performance counters (using perfmon) to check
whether this is true? The GC is more aggressive than you imagine.
Just check the Gen0 1 and 2 performance counters and you will see that the
collector runs, your problem is that you are holding references to objects
(probably large objects) which you never release, so there is little or
nothing to collect.
By starting another process that allocates memory, your service working set
gets trimmed by the OS, that all that happens.

Willy.


Could also be some large objects that are on the Large object Heap that
is not getting compacted. I found this article a good starting point:
http://tinyurl.com/3e9n3
HTH,
Andy

--
To email me directly, please remove the *NO*SPAM* parts below:
*NO*SPAM*xmen40 @*NO*SPAM*gmx.n et
Dec 21 '05 #3
Thanks for the reply.

I would agree that I must be holding on to some references, I will try to
isolate. If the GC was really being aggressive, then why after everything
came back to steady state did the memory in use reduce by half? (800MB -
350MB)

I did run some tests on the classes that would give me the most problems and
it appeared that the GC was smart enough to solve the issue. Here is a brief
synopsis:

TCPServer - Has a hashtable holding a class that encapsulates the client
socket (CS), including a refrence to a class that handles the application
processing (AP). The first thing AP does when it handles an OnConnect is
store a reference to CS so that it can use it to send data back to the client.

State Object (SO) - This holds a reference to CS and a pointer to a 4K byte
array. This is passed on the Async Send / Receive Calls.

Connection Termination - After the connection is closed (abnormally or
normally), the CS is removed from the hashtable. I've done test to see that
once this is performed that the GC is smart enough to deal with the circular
reference between CS and AP, so I don't explicitly set each reference to null.

Outstanding Async Send / Receive - Depending how the connection is
terminated, there is a chance that there can be an Outstanding Async Send and
Receive. I store a reference to the most current IAsyncResult for both the
Send and Receive in the CS object. When closing, I check to see if these are
still outstanding and if so, I retrieve the SO object and set the CS
reference to null. I'm not setting the buffer to null and I probably should.
I don't expect that this condition is normal, but I do my best at handling
it. You can't just stop an asyncronous request which is unfortunate because
I'm sure there is a structure being stored in the OS to encapsulate each
(e.g. same structure that holds the state object).

I will continue to try and isolate. Any ideas based on the above?

"Willy Denoyette [MVP]" wrote:
Did you ever checked the GC performance counters (using perfmon) to check
whether this is true? The GC is more aggressive than you imagine.
Just check the Gen0 1 and 2 performance counters and you will see that the
collector runs, your problem is that you are holding references to objects
(probably large objects) which you never release, so there is little or
nothing to collect.
By starting another process that allocates memory, your service working set
gets trimmed by the OS, that all that happens.

Willy.

"Larry Herbinaux" <La************ @discussions.mi crosoft.com> wrote in
message news:72******** *************** ***********@mic rosoft.com...
I'm having issues with garbage collection with my long-standing service
process. If you could review and point me in the right direction it would
be
of great help. If there are any helpful documents that you could point me
to
help me control the GC, then that would be great also.

The .Net GC does not cleanup memory of our service process unless it is
forced to by another process that hogs memory.
· GC Algorithm - This is an issue because if the GC is not forced into
doing
this, it does not aggressively cleanup until the amount of physical memory
available is very small. I understand why it doesn’t want to force
cleanup
due to processor efficiency, but it forces applications into conditions
that
are not acceptable. It would be nice to be able to hint an upper limit
for
an application that helps the GC be more aggressive when required.
· Race Condition – The GC Algorithm causes race conditions because the
GC is
not coordinated with our application and our application throws
OutOfMemoryExce ptions. We have very good exception handling that guards
against unhandled exceptions in the main thread and thread pool threads.
The
problem is that we use memory to log these issues so the handlers are
probably throwing another OutOfMemoryExce ption. We can handle this, but
the
point is the OutOfMemoryExce ption cause a transaction to fail.
· Force GC To Collect - I wrote a Memory Hogger application which when
run
will reduce the amount of memory used by the service application from
800MB
to 3MB, so this proves that the GC will cleanup the memory when it truly
needs it. I noticed that Memory Usage displayed in the Task Manager
Process
tab did not add up to the total amount of memory in use, so this means
that
the inactive applications probably moved their heap to swap. One concern
here was that when the Memory Hogger application was terminated, our
service
application reclaimed half of its memory and we were not processing
transactions. Maybe GC just moved it to swap.
· GC.Collect – Using this is not recommended within the application.
Even
when this is used, it doesn’t make the GC any more aggressive, so I
agree,
there is no reason to use it. It would be nice to have the ability to
make
the GC more aggressive.
· CLR Profiler - I’ve used the CLR Profiler to determine what memory is
not
being collected. Mostly string and byte arrays. Our service handles TCP
Connections asynchronously and we reuse the same byte array when receiving
data for the next asynchronous read. We store a reference to the current
IAsyncResult for both the asynchronous send and receive requests. The
state
object holds the byte array which we are currently not setting to null.
There isn’t a way of canceling the async requests, so we might have to
explicitly set this to null. I will try this to see if makes a
difference.
As for the strings, I’m not sure where the problem is here.


Dec 22 '05 #4
Thanks, I will take a look at this.

"Andreas Mueller" wrote:
Willy Denoyette [MVP] wrote:
Did you ever checked the GC performance counters (using perfmon) to check
whether this is true? The GC is more aggressive than you imagine.
Just check the Gen0 1 and 2 performance counters and you will see that the
collector runs, your problem is that you are holding references to objects
(probably large objects) which you never release, so there is little or
nothing to collect.
By starting another process that allocates memory, your service working set
gets trimmed by the OS, that all that happens.

Willy.


Could also be some large objects that are on the Large object Heap that
is not getting compacted. I found this article a good starting point:
http://tinyurl.com/3e9n3
HTH,
Andy

--
To email me directly, please remove the *NO*SPAM* parts below:
*NO*SPAM*xmen40 @*NO*SPAM*gmx.n et

Dec 22 '05 #5

"Larry Herbinaux" <La************ @discussions.mi crosoft.com> wrote in
message news:7E******** *************** ***********@mic rosoft.com...
Thanks for the reply.

I would agree that I must be holding on to some references, I will try to
isolate. If the GC was really being aggressive, then why after everything
came back to steady state did the memory in use reduce by half? (800MB -
350MB)

....

There is commercial product, .NET memory profiler (http://memprofiler.com/),
which will show you live objects, as well as who is holding reference and
where it was allocated. There is eval version too. It was great help for me
when I was in similar situation.

Regards,
Goran

Dec 22 '05 #6
Thanks, I will definitely try this out. In comparison with the CLR Profiler,
do you think it is easier to isolate the issues?

The CLR Profiler is helpful in many respects and the documentation is very
good. I was using it to look at the Objects Allocated By Age and this was
helpful to see what objects were holding on too long. I was using it while
doing a stress test and it was way too much information to do isolation. I
should probably just go back and send a single transaction and wait for a
period of time.

Anyhow thanks again.

"Goran Sliskovic" wrote:

"Larry Herbinaux" <La************ @discussions.mi crosoft.com> wrote in
message news:7E******** *************** ***********@mic rosoft.com...
Thanks for the reply.

I would agree that I must be holding on to some references, I will try to
isolate. If the GC was really being aggressive, then why after everything
came back to steady state did the memory in use reduce by half? (800MB -
350MB)

....

There is commercial product, .NET memory profiler (http://memprofiler.com/),
which will show you live objects, as well as who is holding reference and
where it was allocated. There is eval version too. It was great help for me
when I was in similar situation.

Regards,
Goran

Dec 22 '05 #7
Have you tried just calling the GC yourself. I was creating an
application that used screen capturing pretty heavily, and it managed
to fill memory up in no time. I simply inserted

GC.Collect();

in my outer loop and just like that, memory usage flattened. Hope this
helps.

Dec 22 '05 #8
Yeah, I tried this, but it was just reducing it a small amount much like the
GC was doing. I think I probably have some references that aren't being
removed. I just need to isolate it.

Thanks

"Justin Creasy" wrote:
Have you tried just calling the GC yourself. I was creating an
application that used screen capturing pretty heavily, and it managed
to fill memory up in no time. I simply inserted

GC.Collect();

in my outer loop and just like that, memory usage flattened. Hope this
helps.

Dec 22 '05 #9
Larry,

The problem with sockets is the unmanaged memory buffers used by the
underlying Winsock library, whenever you need to transfer a block of data
(probably a byte array) to and from the unmanaged socket send/receive
function, these arrays must be pinned. Now, when using asynchronous sockets,
these arrays may stay pinned for a relatively long period of time, right.
The problem with pinned objects (the arrays) is that they prevent the GC to
compact the heap (pinned objects can't move!).
The result is that, depending of the number of buffers (your State object?),
you might end with a highly fragmented GC heap that keeps growing, not
because the GC cannot collect but because he cannot compact.
So what you need to do is review your design, and try to find out how many
pinned objects you have in the youngest generations ((Gen0 and Gen1), these
have the most impact). Try to prevent pinning for young objects by
(pre)allocating your buffers very early in the process and use the same
buffers for the whole run of the process, that way they will end in the Gen2
after a few collector runs and stay there where they don't hurt the GC that
much.

Hope this helps.
Willy.

"Larry Herbinaux" <La************ @discussions.mi crosoft.com> wrote in
message news:7E******** *************** ***********@mic rosoft.com...
Thanks for the reply.

I would agree that I must be holding on to some references, I will try to
isolate. If the GC was really being aggressive, then why after everything
came back to steady state did the memory in use reduce by half? (800MB -
350MB)

I did run some tests on the classes that would give me the most problems
and
it appeared that the GC was smart enough to solve the issue. Here is a
brief
synopsis:

TCPServer - Has a hashtable holding a class that encapsulates the client
socket (CS), including a refrence to a class that handles the application
processing (AP). The first thing AP does when it handles an OnConnect is
store a reference to CS so that it can use it to send data back to the
client.

State Object (SO) - This holds a reference to CS and a pointer to a 4K
byte
array. This is passed on the Async Send / Receive Calls.

Connection Termination - After the connection is closed (abnormally or
normally), the CS is removed from the hashtable. I've done test to see
that
once this is performed that the GC is smart enough to deal with the
circular
reference between CS and AP, so I don't explicitly set each reference to
null.

Outstanding Async Send / Receive - Depending how the connection is
terminated, there is a chance that there can be an Outstanding Async Send
and
Receive. I store a reference to the most current IAsyncResult for both
the
Send and Receive in the CS object. When closing, I check to see if these
are
still outstanding and if so, I retrieve the SO object and set the CS
reference to null. I'm not setting the buffer to null and I probably
should.
I don't expect that this condition is normal, but I do my best at handling
it. You can't just stop an asyncronous request which is unfortunate
because
I'm sure there is a structure being stored in the OS to encapsulate each
(e.g. same structure that holds the state object).

I will continue to try and isolate. Any ideas based on the above?

"Willy Denoyette [MVP]" wrote:
Did you ever checked the GC performance counters (using perfmon) to check
whether this is true? The GC is more aggressive than you imagine.
Just check the Gen0 1 and 2 performance counters and you will see that
the
collector runs, your problem is that you are holding references to
objects
(probably large objects) which you never release, so there is little or
nothing to collect.
By starting another process that allocates memory, your service working
set
gets trimmed by the OS, that all that happens.

Willy.

"Larry Herbinaux" <La************ @discussions.mi crosoft.com> wrote in
message news:72******** *************** ***********@mic rosoft.com...
> I'm having issues with garbage collection with my long-standing service
> process. If you could review and point me in the right direction it
> would
> be
> of great help. If there are any helpful documents that you could point
> me
> to
> help me control the GC, then that would be great also.
>
> The .Net GC does not cleanup memory of our service process unless it is
> forced to by another process that hogs memory.
> · GC Algorithm - This is an issue because if the GC is not forced
> into
> doing
> this, it does not aggressively cleanup until the amount of physical
> memory
> available is very small. I understand why it doesn’t want to
> force
> cleanup
> due to processor efficiency, but it forces applications into conditions
> that
> are not acceptable. It would be nice to be able to hint an upper limit
> for
> an application that helps the GC be more aggressive when required.
> · Race Condition – The GC Algorithm causes race conditions
> because the
> GC is
> not coordinated with our application and our application throws
> OutOfMemoryExce ptions. We have very good exception handling that
> guards
> against unhandled exceptions in the main thread and thread pool
> threads.
> The
> problem is that we use memory to log these issues so the handlers are
> probably throwing another OutOfMemoryExce ption. We can handle this,
> but
> the
> point is the OutOfMemoryExce ption cause a transaction to fail.
> · Force GC To Collect - I wrote a Memory Hogger application which
> when
> run
> will reduce the amount of memory used by the service application from
> 800MB
> to 3MB, so this proves that the GC will cleanup the memory when it
> truly
> needs it. I noticed that Memory Usage displayed in the Task Manager
> Process
> tab did not add up to the total amount of memory in use, so this means
> that
> the inactive applications probably moved their heap to swap. One
> concern
> here was that when the Memory Hogger application was terminated, our
> service
> application reclaimed half of its memory and we were not processing
> transactions. Maybe GC just moved it to swap.
> · GC.Collect – Using this is not recommended within the
> application.
> Even
> when this is used, it doesn’t make the GC any more aggressive,
> so I
> agree,
> there is no reason to use it. It would be nice to have the ability to
> make
> the GC more aggressive.
> · CLR Profiler - I’ve used the CLR Profiler to determine what
> memory is
> not
> being collected. Mostly string and byte arrays. Our service handles
> TCP
> Connections asynchronously and we reuse the same byte array when
> receiving
> data for the next asynchronous read. We store a reference to the
> current
> IAsyncResult for both the asynchronous send and receive requests. The
> state
> object holds the byte array which we are currently not setting to null.
> There isn’t a way of canceling the async requests, so we might
> have to
> explicitly set this to null. I will try this to see if makes a
> difference.
> As for the strings, I’m not sure where the problem is here.
>


Dec 22 '05 #10

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