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C# Service Terminating Itself

I have a C# Windows Service running as the NetworkService account because it
needs to access a network share.

As part of the service's initialization, I want the service to terminate, if
an unrecoverable error occurs. When that case occurs, I create a
ServiceControll er object and call the Stop() method.

However - I get an exception thrown saying access denied. If I switch to
using the LocalService account it works fine, but I lose access to my
network resources.

What is the proper way for a service to stop itself? I would really rather
not add a separate user account to accomplish this. It seems kind of odd
that a service cannot stop itself.
Any ideas?

--
Adam Clauss

Nov 17 '05
23 7585
> A clean way to stop a "running" Service, is by asking the SCM to issue a
Stop request (using the ServiceControle r object for instance), but you


In SDK terms, a starting service first calls
RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx() to register a callback for communication
with the SCM. When it's running, the service calls
SetServiceStatu s(...,SERVICE_R UNNING) to let the SCM know it's up and
running. When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED),
and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess(). There's no need
for an external program to be involved, from an SDK point of view.

In .NET there appears to be no "natural" way of calling
SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED). Maybe you could call the function
using P/Invoke. But I'm pretty sure if you just exit the program in some
way, the SCM will find out and set the service status to stopped by itself.

See the service reference in the MSDN:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/de..._reference.asp

Greetings,
Wessel
Nov 17 '05 #11
> A clean way to stop a "running" Service, is by asking the SCM to issue a
Stop request (using the ServiceControle r object for instance), but you


In SDK terms, a starting service first calls
RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx() to register a callback for communication
with the SCM. When it's running, the service calls
SetServiceStatu s(...,SERVICE_R UNNING) to let the SCM know it's up and
running. When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED),
and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess(). There's no need
for an external program to be involved, from an SDK point of view.

In .NET there appears to be no "natural" way of calling
SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED). Maybe you could call the function
using P/Invoke. But I'm pretty sure if you just exit the program in some
way, the SCM will find out and set the service status to stopped by itself.

See the service reference in the MSDN:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/de..._reference.asp

Greetings,
Wessel
Nov 17 '05 #12
Inline

Willy.

"Wessel Troost" <no*****@like.t he.sun> wrote in message
news:op.st97xla pf3yrl7@asbel.. .
A clean way to stop a "running" Service, is by asking the SCM to issue a
Stop request (using the ServiceControle r object for instance), but you
In SDK terms, a starting service first calls
RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx() to register a callback for communication
with the SCM. When it's running, the service calls
SetServiceStatu s(...,SERVICE_R UNNING) to let the SCM know it's up and
running.


Right, RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx, that's exactly what's been done in
ServiceBase.Ser viceMainCallBac k(),
which calls ServiceBase.Ser viceMainQueueCa llBack() on a worker thread, this
method calls the overriden OnStart() in a try/catch block.
When OnStart returns normally, "StartSuccessfu l" is written to the EventLog,
and SetServiceStatu s() is called with the status set to 4 (SERVICE_RUNNIN G),
if OnStart throws, the exception message is written to the EventLog as an
Error message prepended with "StartFaile d", and SetServiceStatu s() is called
with the status set to 1 (SERVICE_STOPPE D).
Also note that ServiceBase stuff like OnStart, OnPause etc. runs on the so
called SCM control (unmanaged) thread. This thread is initialized by the
RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx() , that's the reason why you shouldn't run any
service code in one of the OnXXX methods, this thread must be able to
receive commands and send timely responses to the SCM each time the SCM
sends a command (this is done over a named pipe channel..

When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED), and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess().
Not true, the SetServiceStatu s is called when OnStop returns, calling
ExitProcess from within a service would be disastrous for processes hosting
multiple services, you don't want to stop all your services hosted in the
same process don't you :-).
There's no need for an external program to be involved, from an SDK point of view.

In .NET there appears to be no "natural" way of calling
SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED). Maybe you could call the function
using P/Invoke. But I'm pretty sure if you just exit the program in some
way, the SCM will find out and set the service status to stopped by
itself.

Not true, all services must be stoped, started, paused, etc through the
SCM, and this has to be done preferably using an external program (the
reason is obvious right?), samples are the services control panel applet,
and many service controllers running as a foreground program in the system
tray (SQL server manager etc...).
See the service reference in the MSDN:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/de..._reference.asp

Greetings,
Wessel

Nov 17 '05 #13
Inline

Willy.

"Wessel Troost" <no*****@like.t he.sun> wrote in message
news:op.st97xla pf3yrl7@asbel.. .
A clean way to stop a "running" Service, is by asking the SCM to issue a
Stop request (using the ServiceControle r object for instance), but you
In SDK terms, a starting service first calls
RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx() to register a callback for communication
with the SCM. When it's running, the service calls
SetServiceStatu s(...,SERVICE_R UNNING) to let the SCM know it's up and
running.


Right, RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx, that's exactly what's been done in
ServiceBase.Ser viceMainCallBac k(),
which calls ServiceBase.Ser viceMainQueueCa llBack() on a worker thread, this
method calls the overriden OnStart() in a try/catch block.
When OnStart returns normally, "StartSuccessfu l" is written to the EventLog,
and SetServiceStatu s() is called with the status set to 4 (SERVICE_RUNNIN G),
if OnStart throws, the exception message is written to the EventLog as an
Error message prepended with "StartFaile d", and SetServiceStatu s() is called
with the status set to 1 (SERVICE_STOPPE D).
Also note that ServiceBase stuff like OnStart, OnPause etc. runs on the so
called SCM control (unmanaged) thread. This thread is initialized by the
RegisterService CtrlHandlerEx() , that's the reason why you shouldn't run any
service code in one of the OnXXX methods, this thread must be able to
receive commands and send timely responses to the SCM each time the SCM
sends a command (this is done over a named pipe channel..

When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED), and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess().
Not true, the SetServiceStatu s is called when OnStop returns, calling
ExitProcess from within a service would be disastrous for processes hosting
multiple services, you don't want to stop all your services hosted in the
same process don't you :-).
There's no need for an external program to be involved, from an SDK point of view.

In .NET there appears to be no "natural" way of calling
SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED). Maybe you could call the function
using P/Invoke. But I'm pretty sure if you just exit the program in some
way, the SCM will find out and set the service status to stopped by
itself.

Not true, all services must be stoped, started, paused, etc through the
SCM, and this has to be done preferably using an external program (the
reason is obvious right?), samples are the services control panel applet,
and many service controllers running as a foreground program in the system
tray (SQL server manager etc...).
See the service reference in the MSDN:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/de..._reference.asp

Greetings,
Wessel

Nov 17 '05 #14
>> When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED),
and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess().
Not true, the SetServiceStatu s is called when OnStop returns, calling
ExitProcess from within a service would be disastrous for processes
hosting
multiple services, you don't want to stop all your services hosted in the
same process don't you :-).

Every stopping service calls ExitProcess. The other option is the SCM
calling TerminateProces s(), and the SCM doesn't do that, obviously. A
third option would be to generate a Win32 Structured Exception (f.e.
segfault) to leave the process.

If there are multiple services in a process, the process would only call
ExitProcess when all of its services are stopped.
Not true, all services must be stoped, started, paused, etc through the
SCM, and this has to be done preferably using an external program (the
reason is obvious right?), samples are the services control panel applet,

Well, it's not obvious to me, why couldn't a service decide to stop
running by itself?

At any rate I think the point is clear: a .NET service cannot easily stop
itself. We can agree to disagree about wether a C++ ATL service could. :)

Greetings,
Wessel
Nov 17 '05 #15
>> When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED),
and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess().
Not true, the SetServiceStatu s is called when OnStop returns, calling
ExitProcess from within a service would be disastrous for processes
hosting
multiple services, you don't want to stop all your services hosted in the
same process don't you :-).

Every stopping service calls ExitProcess. The other option is the SCM
calling TerminateProces s(), and the SCM doesn't do that, obviously. A
third option would be to generate a Win32 Structured Exception (f.e.
segfault) to leave the process.

If there are multiple services in a process, the process would only call
ExitProcess when all of its services are stopped.
Not true, all services must be stoped, started, paused, etc through the
SCM, and this has to be done preferably using an external program (the
reason is obvious right?), samples are the services control panel applet,

Well, it's not obvious to me, why couldn't a service decide to stop
running by itself?

At any rate I think the point is clear: a .NET service cannot easily stop
itself. We can agree to disagree about wether a C++ ATL service could. :)

Greetings,
Wessel
Nov 17 '05 #16

"Wessel Troost" <no*****@like.t he.sun> wrote in message
news:op.sua2dyq cf3yrl7@asbel.. .
When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED),
and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess().


Not true, the SetServiceStatu s is called when OnStop returns, calling
ExitProcess from within a service would be disastrous for processes
hosting
multiple services, you don't want to stop all your services hosted in the
same process don't you :-).

Every stopping service calls ExitProcess. The other option is the SCM
calling TerminateProces s(), and the SCM doesn't do that, obviously. A
third option would be to generate a Win32 Structured Exception (f.e.
segfault) to leave the process.

If there are multiple services in a process, the process would only call
ExitProcess when all of its services are stopped.
Not true, all services must be stoped, started, paused, etc through the
SCM, and this has to be done preferably using an external program (the
reason is obvious right?), samples are the services control panel applet,

Well, it's not obvious to me, why couldn't a service decide to stop
running by itself?

At any rate I think the point is clear: a .NET service cannot easily stop
itself. We can agree to disagree about wether a C++ ATL service could. :)

Greetings,
Wessel


Sorry but I have to disagree.
First, <why couldn't a service decide to stop running by itself?>

When the SCM registers a service it creates a default security descriptor
for the Service Object, Local authenticated users like NETWORK SERVICE and
LOCAL SERVICE aren't granted SERVICE_START and SERVICE_STOP access rights.
That means if your service runs under one of these accounts (preferred and
strongly advisable), they aren't allowed to stop themselves or start/stop
any other service in the system (was the OP's issue right?). Services that
run as SYSTEM are granted SERVICE_STOP and SERVICE_START access rights
(amongst some other), local administrators and power users are granted all
access (SERVICE_ALL_AC CESS).
Note that above assumes you didn't modify the DACL for the service object
(something only administrator can do).

Or in short Service applications must conform to the interface rules of the
SCM, and this can only be guaranteed if both controller and service are
separate applications.

Second, <Every stopping service calls ExitProcess>.
Which is obviously not true, but ok, you relaxed this a bit:
< If there are multiple services in a process, the process would only call
ExitProcess when all of its services are stopped.>

But again, this is not how things works.
The ServiceControlD ispatcher is started when the Service is started (by the
SCM SERVICE_START command), and it runs on a separate thread that doesn't
return until there is an error (like a rude kill) or all services in the
process have terminated accurately following the SCM interface SERVICE_STOP
protocol (see later). When all services in the process have terminated, the
SCM sends a control request to the dispatcher thread asking it to exit. When
the dispatcher thread terminates (that is when StartServiceCtr lDispatcher
returns) the process returns to the Run method class Dispose() on all
Service classes and finally exits Main() and the CLR handles the remaining
of the process shutdown. You see no ExitProcess called ever.
Ok, lets assume you want to call ExitProcess, but let's start with a
warning, never terminate a managed process using Win32 ExitProcess API, you
have to call Environment.Exi t() so that the CLR can initiate an orderly
shutdown.
Now you can definitely call this method whenever you like in a service, but
you shouldn't, for the obvious reason that:

- You might disturb the SCM!
- you might have other services running in the process AND,
- your service might have dependent services running and these must be
stopped before your service stops.

The latter is taken care of by the ServiceControll er.Stop() [assumed you
call this from within your service, which you shouldn't do], but he! here
you have the same issue as explained above, the ServiceControle r.Stop()
cannot stop dependencies from within the service unless it runs as
Administrator or localsystem.
The second one should be taken care of by you, that means that each service
needs to keep track of all services in the same process and only call
Environment.Exi t() when all are stopped, not impossible to do but useless.
Why? well again the SCM didn't ask to stop, so you are not following the
interface rules imposed by the SCM, you probably didn't stop all running
threads, that might confuse the SCM and might result in a state where the
service cannot be 'stopped' or 'restarted'. If you follow the rules of the
SCM, and use the STOP protocol sequence (SERVICE_CONTRO L_STOP/
SERVICE_STOPPED ) the process will exit in an orderly fashion.
If the SERVICE_CONTROL _STOP request is not honored by a SERVICE_STOPPED , the
SCM will wait "WaitToKillServ iceTimeout" registry value before terminating
the process.

Willy.




Nov 17 '05 #17

"Wessel Troost" <no*****@like.t he.sun> wrote in message
news:op.sua2dyq cf3yrl7@asbel.. .
When it exits, it calls SetServiceStatu s(..,SERVICE_ST OPPED),
and then exits like a normal program with ExitProcess().


Not true, the SetServiceStatu s is called when OnStop returns, calling
ExitProcess from within a service would be disastrous for processes
hosting
multiple services, you don't want to stop all your services hosted in the
same process don't you :-).

Every stopping service calls ExitProcess. The other option is the SCM
calling TerminateProces s(), and the SCM doesn't do that, obviously. A
third option would be to generate a Win32 Structured Exception (f.e.
segfault) to leave the process.

If there are multiple services in a process, the process would only call
ExitProcess when all of its services are stopped.
Not true, all services must be stoped, started, paused, etc through the
SCM, and this has to be done preferably using an external program (the
reason is obvious right?), samples are the services control panel applet,

Well, it's not obvious to me, why couldn't a service decide to stop
running by itself?

At any rate I think the point is clear: a .NET service cannot easily stop
itself. We can agree to disagree about wether a C++ ATL service could. :)

Greetings,
Wessel


Sorry but I have to disagree.
First, <why couldn't a service decide to stop running by itself?>

When the SCM registers a service it creates a default security descriptor
for the Service Object, Local authenticated users like NETWORK SERVICE and
LOCAL SERVICE aren't granted SERVICE_START and SERVICE_STOP access rights.
That means if your service runs under one of these accounts (preferred and
strongly advisable), they aren't allowed to stop themselves or start/stop
any other service in the system (was the OP's issue right?). Services that
run as SYSTEM are granted SERVICE_STOP and SERVICE_START access rights
(amongst some other), local administrators and power users are granted all
access (SERVICE_ALL_AC CESS).
Note that above assumes you didn't modify the DACL for the service object
(something only administrator can do).

Or in short Service applications must conform to the interface rules of the
SCM, and this can only be guaranteed if both controller and service are
separate applications.

Second, <Every stopping service calls ExitProcess>.
Which is obviously not true, but ok, you relaxed this a bit:
< If there are multiple services in a process, the process would only call
ExitProcess when all of its services are stopped.>

But again, this is not how things works.
The ServiceControlD ispatcher is started when the Service is started (by the
SCM SERVICE_START command), and it runs on a separate thread that doesn't
return until there is an error (like a rude kill) or all services in the
process have terminated accurately following the SCM interface SERVICE_STOP
protocol (see later). When all services in the process have terminated, the
SCM sends a control request to the dispatcher thread asking it to exit. When
the dispatcher thread terminates (that is when StartServiceCtr lDispatcher
returns) the process returns to the Run method class Dispose() on all
Service classes and finally exits Main() and the CLR handles the remaining
of the process shutdown. You see no ExitProcess called ever.
Ok, lets assume you want to call ExitProcess, but let's start with a
warning, never terminate a managed process using Win32 ExitProcess API, you
have to call Environment.Exi t() so that the CLR can initiate an orderly
shutdown.
Now you can definitely call this method whenever you like in a service, but
you shouldn't, for the obvious reason that:

- You might disturb the SCM!
- you might have other services running in the process AND,
- your service might have dependent services running and these must be
stopped before your service stops.

The latter is taken care of by the ServiceControll er.Stop() [assumed you
call this from within your service, which you shouldn't do], but he! here
you have the same issue as explained above, the ServiceControle r.Stop()
cannot stop dependencies from within the service unless it runs as
Administrator or localsystem.
The second one should be taken care of by you, that means that each service
needs to keep track of all services in the same process and only call
Environment.Exi t() when all are stopped, not impossible to do but useless.
Why? well again the SCM didn't ask to stop, so you are not following the
interface rules imposed by the SCM, you probably didn't stop all running
threads, that might confuse the SCM and might result in a state where the
service cannot be 'stopped' or 'restarted'. If you follow the rules of the
SCM, and use the STOP protocol sequence (SERVICE_CONTRO L_STOP/
SERVICE_STOPPED ) the process will exit in an orderly fashion.
If the SERVICE_CONTROL _STOP request is not honored by a SERVICE_STOPPED , the
SCM will wait "WaitToKillServ iceTimeout" registry value before terminating
the process.

Willy.




Nov 17 '05 #18
> Note that above assumes you didn't modify the DACL for the service object
(something only administrator can do).
The service doesn't need SERVICE_START or SERVICE_STOP privileges to stop
itself. It can just call SetServiceStatu s(), which is allowed regardless
of access privileges. The service can call this only to report its own
status, something which every service must do.
Or in short Service applications must conform to the interface rules of
the
SCM, and this can only be guaranteed if both controller and service are
separate applications.
Earlier we agreed (and the OP said) that his service could stop itself, if
it ran as local system?

There are many services that require local system privileges. Actually,
one of the main reasons for writing a service used to be increased
privileges.
of the process shutdown. You see no ExitProcess called ever.
Kind of a technicality really, but how do you think a userspace process
signals to the OS that it wants to stop?

When the Main() thread exits, the CLR will call ExitProcess().
- You might disturb the SCM!
The SCM can handle crashing services. In fact, I've killed tons of
services during development using TerminateProces s(), which is arguably
worse than ExitProcess(). The SCM never became disturbed.
- you might have other services running in the process AND,
- your service might have dependent services running and these must be
stopped before your service stops.
I agree that a service should exit nicely in these circumstances.
If the SERVICE_CONTROL _STOP request is not honored by a SERVICE_STOPPED ,
the
SCM will wait "WaitToKillServ iceTimeout" registry value before
terminating
the process.

My point was that the service can send a SERVICE_STOPPED without having
received a SERVICE_CONTROL _STOP. The service process can exit afterwards
(or not, if it has other things to do) and the SCM will know it has
stopped.

Greetings,
Wessel
Nov 17 '05 #19
> Note that above assumes you didn't modify the DACL for the service object
(something only administrator can do).
The service doesn't need SERVICE_START or SERVICE_STOP privileges to stop
itself. It can just call SetServiceStatu s(), which is allowed regardless
of access privileges. The service can call this only to report its own
status, something which every service must do.
Or in short Service applications must conform to the interface rules of
the
SCM, and this can only be guaranteed if both controller and service are
separate applications.
Earlier we agreed (and the OP said) that his service could stop itself, if
it ran as local system?

There are many services that require local system privileges. Actually,
one of the main reasons for writing a service used to be increased
privileges.
of the process shutdown. You see no ExitProcess called ever.
Kind of a technicality really, but how do you think a userspace process
signals to the OS that it wants to stop?

When the Main() thread exits, the CLR will call ExitProcess().
- You might disturb the SCM!
The SCM can handle crashing services. In fact, I've killed tons of
services during development using TerminateProces s(), which is arguably
worse than ExitProcess(). The SCM never became disturbed.
- you might have other services running in the process AND,
- your service might have dependent services running and these must be
stopped before your service stops.
I agree that a service should exit nicely in these circumstances.
If the SERVICE_CONTROL _STOP request is not honored by a SERVICE_STOPPED ,
the
SCM will wait "WaitToKillServ iceTimeout" registry value before
terminating
the process.

My point was that the service can send a SERVICE_STOPPED without having
received a SERVICE_CONTROL _STOP. The service process can exit afterwards
(or not, if it has other things to do) and the SCM will know it has
stopped.

Greetings,
Wessel
Nov 17 '05 #20

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