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tough SQL question

This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.

Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortization schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period

schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?

Thanks,
Elaine
Nov 13 '05 #1
13 2174
Why not use a report? You can create running sums there without a
problem. I think you can create running sums in a query - I think John
Winterbottom posted the SQL some time ago. But it would be MUCH easier
to do in a report.

Nov 13 '05 #2
On Mon, 21 Mar 2005 14:15:08 -0900, Elaine
<no************ ******@commerce .state.ak.us> wrote:
This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.

Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortization schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period
payment amount is superfluous. it can always be determined from the
other three, but for now let's assume that it is available.
schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?


Are you willing to have a temporary table available for seeding the
rows? If so, let's presume that you want a recordset returned for a
loan with 60 rows.

Select expr1, expr2, expr3, payment_number from temptable where
temptable.payme nt_number < numberofperiods + 1

where:
numberofperiods = 60
expr1 is the balance
expr2 = payment_amount - rate_per_period * expr1
expr3 = payment_amount - expr2

So, this boils down to the determination of the balance at the
beginning of the period.

The balance is a simple mathematical equation that is a variation on
the formula I posted a couple of days ago.

Balance = payment_amount * ((1 - (1+i)^-n)/(i)) where:

i = rate_per_period
n = payments left (this is determined by number_of_payme nts -
payment_number

Depending on the version of access you are using, you can use a
disconnected recordset to create the seeds, so you can avoid the temp
table completely.

mike

Nov 13 '05 #3
Mike,

Payment amount is *not* superfluous unless one wants to recalculate
the payment amount for every row, which would be an awful lot of
calculations.

~~~~~
Here is a VB code fragment that produces an amortization schedule from
given parameters:
' establish beginning balance
fBal = pv
'
For i = 1 To fNPers
fInt = fRatePer * fBal
fPrinc = fPmt - fInt
If fBal < fPrinc Then ' adjust final payment amount
fPrinc = fBal
End If
Debug.Print Format(fBal, "Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fPrinc,
"Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fInt, "Currency") & Chr(9) & CStr(i)
fBal = fBal - fPrinc
Next i
~~~~~

And, no, I don't want a temporary table. I want to know whether it is
possible to do this using SQL only, having the givens to procede from.

An ADO recordset would work swell, but, again, I am not interesting in
a solution which is not SQL only.

Thanks for your input.

On Tue, 22 Mar 2005 00:08:58 GMT, mb******@pacbel l.net.invalid (Mike
Preston) wrote:
On Mon, 21 Mar 2005 14:15:08 -0900, Elaine
<no*********** *******@commerc e.state.ak.us> wrote:
This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.

Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortizatio n schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period


payment amount is superfluous. it can always be determined from the
other three, but for now let's assume that it is available.
schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?


Are you willing to have a temporary table available for seeding the
rows? If so, let's presume that you want a recordset returned for a
loan with 60 rows.

Select expr1, expr2, expr3, payment_number from temptable where
temptable.paym ent_number < numberofperiods + 1

where:
numberofperiod s = 60
expr1 is the balance
expr2 = payment_amount - rate_per_period * expr1
expr3 = payment_amount - expr2

So, this boils down to the determination of the balance at the
beginning of the period.

The balance is a simple mathematical equation that is a variation on
the formula I posted a couple of days ago.

Balance = payment_amount * ((1 - (1+i)^-n)/(i)) where:

i = rate_per_period
n = payments left (this is determined by number_of_payme nts -
payment_numb er

Depending on the version of access you are using, you can use a
disconnected recordset to create the seeds, so you can avoid the temp
table completely.

mike


Nov 13 '05 #4
One of the basics of relational database design is that you do not store in
a record any value that can be calculated whenever it is needed, from other
values in that record. Retrieval time from rotating memory is so much slower
than calculations that you need not worry about recalculations affecting
performance.

Larry Linson
Microsoft Access MVP
"Elaine" <no************ ******@commerce .state.ak.us> wrote in message
news:f3******** *************** *********@4ax.c om...
Mike,

Payment amount is *not* superfluous unless one wants to recalculate
the payment amount for every row, which would be an awful lot of
calculations.

~~~~~
Here is a VB code fragment that produces an amortization schedule from
given parameters:
' establish beginning balance
fBal = pv
'
For i = 1 To fNPers
fInt = fRatePer * fBal
fPrinc = fPmt - fInt
If fBal < fPrinc Then ' adjust final payment amount
fPrinc = fBal
End If
Debug.Print Format(fBal, "Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fPrinc,
"Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fInt, "Currency") & Chr(9) & CStr(i)
fBal = fBal - fPrinc
Next i
~~~~~

And, no, I don't want a temporary table. I want to know whether it is
possible to do this using SQL only, having the givens to procede from.

An ADO recordset would work swell, but, again, I am not interesting in
a solution which is not SQL only.

Thanks for your input.

On Tue, 22 Mar 2005 00:08:58 GMT, mb******@pacbel l.net.invalid (Mike
Preston) wrote:
On Mon, 21 Mar 2005 14:15:08 -0900, Elaine
<no*********** *******@commerc e.state.ak.us> wrote:
This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.

Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortizatio n schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period


payment amount is superfluous. it can always be determined from the
other three, but for now let's assume that it is available.
schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?


Are you willing to have a temporary table available for seeding the
rows? If so, let's presume that you want a recordset returned for a
loan with 60 rows.

Select expr1, expr2, expr3, payment_number from temptable where
temptable.paym ent_number < numberofperiods + 1

where:
numberofperiod s = 60
expr1 is the balance
expr2 = payment_amount - rate_per_period * expr1
expr3 = payment_amount - expr2

So, this boils down to the determination of the balance at the
beginning of the period.

The balance is a simple mathematical equation that is a variation on
the formula I posted a couple of days ago.

Balance = payment_amount * ((1 - (1+i)^-n)/(i)) where:

i = rate_per_period
n = payments left (this is determined by number_of_payme nts -
payment_numb er

Depending on the version of access you are using, you can use a
disconnected recordset to create the seeds, so you can avoid the temp
table completely.

mike

Nov 13 '05 #5
Larry,

From your response it is obvious that you did not read the question,
or if you did read it you did not understand it, or chose to ignore
the actual question and answer a question not asked.

I appreciate all the time you put in on the group, but taking a
subject off-topic is not appreciated.

Nowhere have I indicated that I am storing anything anywhere. Mike
seemed to assume that I asked a different question as well.

To repeat:

Do you know the SQL for generating an amortization schedule, given the
necessary values required for creating one, --> USING SQL ONLY <-- ?

NO VBA, NO EXCEL FUNCTIONS, SQL ONLY

Thanks,
Elaine

On Thu, 24 Mar 2005 00:59:33 GMT, "Larry Linson"
<bo*****@localh ost.not> wrote:
One of the basics of relational database design is that you do not store in
a record any value that can be calculated whenever it is needed, from other
values in that record. Retrieval time from rotating memory is so much slower
than calculations that you need not worry about recalculations affecting
performance.

Larry Linson
Microsoft Access MVP
"Elaine" <no************ ******@commerce .state.ak.us> wrote in message
news:f3******* *************** **********@4ax. com...
Mike,

Payment amount is *not* superfluous unless one wants to recalculate
the payment amount for every row, which would be an awful lot of
calculations.

~~~~~
Here is a VB code fragment that produces an amortization schedule from
given parameters:
' establish beginning balance
fBal = pv
'
For i = 1 To fNPers
fInt = fRatePer * fBal
fPrinc = fPmt - fInt
If fBal < fPrinc Then ' adjust final payment amount
fPrinc = fBal
End If
Debug.Print Format(fBal, "Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fPrinc,
"Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fInt, "Currency") & Chr(9) & CStr(i)
fBal = fBal - fPrinc
Next i
~~~~~

And, no, I don't want a temporary table. I want to know whether it is
possible to do this using SQL only, having the givens to procede from.

An ADO recordset would work swell, but, again, I am not interesting in
a solution which is not SQL only.

Thanks for your input.

On Tue, 22 Mar 2005 00:08:58 GMT, mb******@pacbel l.net.invalid (Mike
Preston) wrote:
>On Mon, 21 Mar 2005 14:15:08 -0900, Elaine
><no*********** *******@commerc e.state.ak.us> wrote:
>
>>This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.
>>
>>Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?
>>
>>Amortizatio n schedule
>>--------------------------
>>Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
>>period
>
>payment amount is superfluous. it can always be determined from the
>other three, but for now let's assume that it is available.
>
>>schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
>>interest paid, payment number
>>
>>output calculation would be, effectively
>>
>>balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
>>balance, row number
>>
>>Can this be done in Access SQL?
>
>Are you willing to have a temporary table available for seeding the
>rows? If so, let's presume that you want a recordset returned for a
>loan with 60 rows.
>
>Select expr1, expr2, expr3, payment_number from temptable where
>temptable.paym ent_number < numberofperiods + 1
>
>where:
>numberofperiod s = 60
>expr1 is the balance
>expr2 = payment_amount - rate_per_period * expr1
>expr3 = payment_amount - expr2
>
>So, this boils down to the determination of the balance at the
>beginning of the period.
>
>The balance is a simple mathematical equation that is a variation on
>the formula I posted a couple of days ago.
>
>Balance = payment_amount * ((1 - (1+i)^-n)/(i)) where:
>
>i = rate_per_period
>n = payments left (this is determined by number_of_payme nts -
>payment_numb er
>
>Depending on the version of access you are using, you can use a
>disconnected recordset to create the seeds, so you can avoid the temp
>table completely.
>
>mike
>


Nov 13 '05 #6
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA1

If it is necessary to run a loop to get the amortization sked, then, no,
you can't run a loop in Access' (JET) SQL. If you're using a db engine
that has stored procedures, like SQL Server, or Oracle, or IBM DB2, etc.
you can run a loop. That loop would store the results in a temp table &
then spew the results back to you in a recordset, deleting the temp
table as it finishes.
--
MGFoster:::mgf0 0 <at> earthlink <decimal-point> net
Oakland, CA (USA)

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: PGP for Personal Privacy 5.0
Charset: noconv

iQA/AwUBQkMce4echKq OuFEgEQJtlACg3F nb4k8jY9GjJ+POv QXrtc6fTVcAoNDW
Er28RvkoTVuRvjb uxIxhu470
=rlrr
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

Elaine wrote:
Larry,

From your response it is obvious that you did not read the question,
or if you did read it you did not understand it, or chose to ignore
the actual question and answer a question not asked.

I appreciate all the time you put in on the group, but taking a
subject off-topic is not appreciated.

Nowhere have I indicated that I am storing anything anywhere. Mike
seemed to assume that I asked a different question as well.

To repeat:

Do you know the SQL for generating an amortization schedule, given the
necessary values required for creating one, --> USING SQL ONLY <-- ?

NO VBA, NO EXCEL FUNCTIONS, SQL ONLY

Thanks,
Elaine

On Thu, 24 Mar 2005 00:59:33 GMT, "Larry Linson"
<bo*****@localh ost.not> wrote:

One of the basics of relational database design is that you do not store in
a record any value that can be calculated whenever it is needed, from other
values in that record. Retrieval time from rotating memory is so much slower
than calculations that you need not worry about recalculations affecting
performance .

Larry Linson
Microsoft Access MVP
"Elaine" <no************ ******@commerce .state.ak.us> wrote in message
news:f3****** *************** ***********@4ax .com...
Mike,

Payment amount is *not* superfluous unless one wants to recalculate
the payment amount for every row, which would be an awful lot of
calculations .

~~~~~
Here is a VB code fragment that produces an amortization schedule from
given parameters:
' establish beginning balance
fBal = pv
'
For i = 1 To fNPers
fInt = fRatePer * fBal
fPrinc = fPmt - fInt
If fBal < fPrinc Then ' adjust final payment amount
fPrinc = fBal
End If
Debug.Print Format(fBal, "Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fPrinc,
"Currency" ) & Chr(9) & Format(fInt, "Currency") & Chr(9) & CStr(i)
fBal = fBal - fPrinc
Next i
~~~~~

And, no, I don't want a temporary table. I want to know whether it is
possible to do this using SQL only, having the givens to procede from.

An ADO recordset would work swell, but, again, I am not interesting in
a solution which is not SQL only.

Thanks for your input.

On Tue, 22 Mar 2005 00:08:58 GMT, mb******@pacbel l.net.invalid (Mike
Preston) wrote:
On Mon, 21 Mar 2005 14:15:08 -0900, Elaine
<no******** **********@comm erce.state.ak.u s> wrote:
>This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.
>
>Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?
>
>Amortizati on schedule
>--------------------------
>Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
>period

payment amount is superfluous. it can always be determined from the
other three, but for now let's assume that it is available.
>schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
>interest paid, payment number
>
>output calculation would be, effectively
>
>balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
>balance, row number
>
>Can this be done in Access SQL?

Are you willing to have a temporary table available for seeding the
rows? If so, let's presume that you want a recordset returned for a
loan with 60 rows.

Select expr1, expr2, expr3, payment_number from temptable where
temptable.p ayment_number < numberofperiods + 1

where:
numberofper iods = 60
expr1 is the balance
expr2 = payment_amount - rate_per_period * expr1
expr3 = payment_amount - expr2

So, this boils down to the determination of the balance at the
beginning of the period.

The balance is a simple mathematical equation that is a variation on
the formula I posted a couple of days ago.

Balance = payment_amount * ((1 - (1+i)^-n)/(i)) where:

i = rate_per_period
n = payments left (this is determined by number_of_payme nts -
payment_num ber

Depending on the version of access you are using, you can use a
disconnecte d recordset to create the seeds, so you can avoid the temp
table completely.

mike

Nov 13 '05 #7
>Payment amount is *not* superfluous unless one wants to recalculate
the payment amount for every row, which would be an awful lot of
calculations .
Which means you agree with me. See Larry's response. This forum sees
this line of thinking every so often and you will find almost
universal agreement that saving information which can be calculated is
generally not a good idea.
~~~~~
Here is a VB code fragment that produces an amortization schedule from
given parameters:
' establish beginning balance
fBal = pv
'
For i = 1 To fNPers
fInt = fRatePer * fBal
fPrinc = fPmt - fInt
If fBal < fPrinc Then ' adjust final payment amount
fPrinc = fBal
End If
Debug.Print Format(fBal, "Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fPrinc,
"Currency") & Chr(9) & Format(fInt, "Currency") & Chr(9) & CStr(i)
fBal = fBal - fPrinc
Next i
~~~~~

And, no, I don't want a temporary table. I want to know whether it is
possible to do this using SQL only, having the givens to procede from.
Well, SQL is intended, primarily, to operate on the basis of
recordsets. If you aren't willing to have a pre-populated recordset
(a temp table) and aren't willing to create a disconnected recordset
to operate from (ADO) then what were you referring to when you
mentioned that you thought the solution involved a self-join? Is the
information you mentioned available through memory or from a recordset
of some sort? Please describe what it is we have to work with.
An ADO recordset would work swell, but, again, I am not interesting in
a solution which is not SQL only.
On Tue, 22 Mar 2005 00:08:58 GMT, mb******@pacbel l.net.invalid (Mike
Preston) wrote:
On Mon, 21 Mar 2005 14:15:08 -0900, Elaine
<no********** ********@commer ce.state.ak.us> wrote:
This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.

Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortizati on schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period


payment amount is superfluous. it can always be determined from the
other three, but for now let's assume that it is available.
schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?


Are you willing to have a temporary table available for seeding the
rows? If so, let's presume that you want a recordset returned for a
loan with 60 rows.

Select expr1, expr2, expr3, payment_number from temptable where
temptable.pay ment_number < numberofperiods + 1

where:
numberofperio ds = 60
expr1 is the balance
expr2 = payment_amount - rate_per_period * expr1
expr3 = payment_amount - expr2

So, this boils down to the determination of the balance at the
beginning of the period.

The balance is a simple mathematical equation that is a variation on
the formula I posted a couple of days ago.

Balance = payment_amount * ((1 - (1+i)^-n)/(i)) where:

i = rate_per_period
n = payments left (this is determined by number_of_payme nts -
payment_numbe r

Depending on the version of access you are using, you can use a
disconnecte d recordset to create the seeds, so you can avoid the temp
table completely.

mike


Nov 13 '05 #8
Elaine wrote:
This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balance problem.
Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortization schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period

schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?

Thanks,
Elaine


I think I understand the question :-). I'll sketch what I did using
your variable names.

tblNatural
ID AutoNumber
1
2
3
....
1000

qryPeriods
SELECT (SELECT Count(*) FROM tblNatural AS A WHERE A.ID <
tblNatural.ID) + 1 AS thePeriod FROM tblNatural WHERE tblNatural.ID <=
fNPers;

gave:
1
2
3
....
fNPers

The formula for the Balance (can naturally go negative unless the final
payment condition is used if fNPers is too high):

Bal(thePeriod) = pv * (1 + fRatePer) ^ thePeriod - fPmt * ((1 +
fRatePer) ^ thePeriod - 1) / fRatePer

qryAmortization
SELECT thePeriod, IIf(Bal(thePeri od) > 0, Bal(thePeriod), 0) AS Balance
FROM qry Periods;

That is, if the balance is positive, use it, otherwise the final
payment of Bal(thePeriod - 1) * (1 + fRatePer) will send the balance to
0. So the 'real' qryAmortization has Bal(thePeriod) replaced with the
expression above and Bal(thePeriod - 1) replaced with the expression
above using extra parentheses where needed around thePeriod - 1
replacing thePeriod. The formula for the Balance was found by solving
the recurrence relation Bal(j) = Bal(j-1) * (1 + fRatePer) - fPmt. The
principal paid and interest paid involves even more cut and paste and
IIF logic for the final values. Needless to say, I have not tested the
final result but I did try out the formula for the balance and it
seemed to work correctly. I also didn't see what would happen when a
zero exponent is used, but the values are correct if Access puts in a
one when that happens.

James A. Fortune

Nov 13 '05 #9
On 24 Mar 2005 20:25:10 -0800, ji********@comp umarc.com wrote:
Elaine wrote:
This has to do with self-joins and includes a running balanceproblem.

Is it possible to do this using SQL alone?

Amortization schedule
--------------------------
Givens: beginning balance, payment amount, # of periods, rate per
period

schedule would consist of columns for balance, principal paid,
interest paid, payment number

output calculation would be, effectively

balance, payment - (rate per period * balance), rate per period *
balance, row number

Can this be done in Access SQL?

Thanks,
Elaine


I think I understand the question :-).


About as well as I did, I guess. ;-)

Your tblNatural is what I suggested as the temporary table to seed the
rows needed. Your subselect statement is a good idea because it
allows the contents of the temp table to have anything at all (even be
used primarily for something else), have the autonumbers be generated
randomly or sequentially [even with gaps] and still return the proper
row seeds, as long as the number of rows in that table are sufficient
to allow all the rows in the amortization to be calculated. I had
envisioned something a bit more structured where the temp table has
one field in it and the field has a unique number in it representing
the number of the row. I suppose my sample sql statement should have
had an 'order by' clause to drive home that point. As it is, it would
return all the correct information, but the order might be less than
desirable. :-(
I'll sketch what I did using
your variable names.

tblNatural
ID AutoNumber
1
2
3
...
1000

qryPeriods
SELECT (SELECT Count(*) FROM tblNatural AS A WHERE A.ID <
tblNatural.I D) + 1 AS thePeriod FROM tblNatural WHERE tblNatural.ID <=
fNPers;

gave:
1
2
3
...
fNPers

The formula for the Balance (can naturally go negative unless the final
payment condition is used if fNPers is too high):

Bal(thePerio d) = pv * (1 + fRatePer) ^ thePeriod - fPmt * ((1 +
fRatePer) ^ thePeriod - 1) / fRatePer
I think you meant to use "beginning balance" where you put "pv".

You use two exponentiations , where mine only used one. We have
already determined that CPU cycles are inexpensive, so no point in
quibbling over those. But my formula is more efficient. ;-) You
solve for balance using beginning balance, interest rate and period
number. I solve for balance using payment amount, interest and period
number.

Since we have already established that if you have three of these,
they uniquely define the fourth, it is just a matter of which is
available when that determines the best formula to use.

But they are identical solutions.

mike
qryAmortizatio n
SELECT thePeriod, IIf(Bal(thePeri od) > 0, Bal(thePeriod), 0) AS Balance
FROM qry Periods;

That is, if the balance is positive, use it, otherwise the final
payment of Bal(thePeriod - 1) * (1 + fRatePer) will send the balance to
0. So the 'real' qryAmortization has Bal(thePeriod) replaced with the
expression above and Bal(thePeriod - 1) replaced with the expression
above using extra parentheses where needed around thePeriod - 1
replacing thePeriod. The formula for the Balance was found by solving
the recurrence relation Bal(j) = Bal(j-1) * (1 + fRatePer) - fPmt. The
principal paid and interest paid involves even more cut and paste and
IIF logic for the final values. Needless to say, I have not tested the
final result but I did try out the formula for the balance and it
seemed to work correctly. I also didn't see what would happen when a
zero exponent is used, but the values are correct if Access puts in a
one when that happens.

James A. Fortune


Nov 13 '05 #10

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Hi, I have to develop a web app for registration of persons for a particular training. Before entering into the registration form, a login form have to be made. No problem in doing both. But after successful login, and after reaching registration form , if the user hits BACK button in internet explorer( or any browser ), it should not go back to login form. Is it possible to do so ? or someother alternative should be made... ?
0
1000
by: asterisk | last post by:
Hi, I am already mad for charset issue, please help me clear it. My question here is, I want to retrieve fields from Sql server database, whose collation is Latin, but the content of field is garbage data because we encoded data by charset big5 in browser to store them into database. when I copy them into notepad.exe and browse them in browser with big5, they are correct, but when I retrieve them by using System.text.encoding to convert big5...
16
1351
by: Mr Shore | last post by:
hi all what I want to do is as below start a function halt on, until some event occurs(maybe user click) and then return some value accordingly. Or is it possible to do this stuff?
12
1477
by: Mr Shore | last post by:
how to do the follows in IE: there's page A with element a pop a new page B from script in A and append element a into B after closing page B put element a back into A 'IE' solution only
4
1953
by: Jim Rutledge | last post by:
ok ok , anyone know anything on this tough question? How do you determine the length in seconds that a midi file is , or any audio file for that matter ?
0
8957
marktang
by: marktang | last post by:
ONU (Optical Network Unit) is one of the key components for providing high-speed Internet services. Its primary function is to act as an endpoint device located at the user's premises. However, people are often confused as to whether an ONU can Work As a Router. In this blog post, weíll explore What is ONU, What Is Router, ONU & Routerís main usage, and What is the difference between ONU and Router. Letís take a closer look ! Part I. Meaning of...
0
8783
by: Hystou | last post by:
Most computers default to English, but sometimes we require a different language, especially when relocating. Forgot to request a specific language before your computer shipped? No problem! You can effortlessly switch the default language on Windows 10 without reinstalling. I'll walk you through it. First, let's disable language synchronization. With a Microsoft account, language settings sync across devices. To prevent any complications,...
0
9459
Oralloy
by: Oralloy | last post by:
Hello folks, I am unable to find appropriate documentation on the type promotion of bit-fields when using the generalised comparison operator "<=>". The problem is that using the GNU compilers, it seems that the internal comparison operator "<=>" tries to promote arguments from unsigned to signed. This is as boiled down as I can make it. Here is my compilation command: g++-12 -std=c++20 -Wnarrowing bit_field.cpp Here is the code in...
0
9321
jinu1996
by: jinu1996 | last post by:
In today's digital age, having a compelling online presence is paramount for businesses aiming to thrive in a competitive landscape. At the heart of this digital strategy lies an intricately woven tapestry of website design and digital marketing. It's not merely about having a website; it's about crafting an immersive digital experience that captivates audiences and drives business growth. The Art of Business Website Design Your website is...
1
9248
by: Hystou | last post by:
Overview: Windows 11 and 10 have less user interface control over operating system update behaviour than previous versions of Windows. In Windows 11 and 10, there is no way to turn off the Windows Update option using the Control Panel or Settings app; it automatically checks for updates and installs any it finds, whether you like it or not. For most users, this new feature is actually very convenient. If you want to control the update process,...
0
9193
tracyyun
by: tracyyun | last post by:
Dear forum friends, With the development of smart home technology, a variety of wireless communication protocols have appeared on the market, such as Zigbee, Z-Wave, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, etc. Each protocol has its own unique characteristics and advantages, but as a user who is planning to build a smart home system, I am a bit confused by the choice of these technologies. I'm particularly interested in Zigbee because I've heard it does some...
1
3268
by: 6302768590 | last post by:
Hai team i want code for transfer the data from one system to another through IP address by using C# our system has to for every 5mins then we have to update the data what the data is updated we have to send another system
2
2736
muto222
by: muto222 | last post by:
How can i add a mobile payment intergratation into php mysql website.
3
2185
bsmnconsultancy
by: bsmnconsultancy | last post by:
In today's digital era, a well-designed website is crucial for businesses looking to succeed. Whether you're a small business owner or a large corporation in Toronto, having a strong online presence can significantly impact your brand's success. BSMN Consultancy, a leader in Website Development in Toronto offers valuable insights into creating effective websites that not only look great but also perform exceptionally well. In this comprehensive...

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